Brunton Consulting Services

216 Lincoln Heights Road, Ottawa, Ontario K2B 8A8

Phone: (613) 829-7307 Fax: (613) 829-4688 e-mail: bruntonconsulting@rogers.com

 

Natural Environment Area boundary

in South March Highlands

Special Study Area

FINAL REPORT

June 2004

 

Delineation of Natural Environment Area in

the South March Highlands Special Study

Area, Kanata, City of Ottawa

FINAL REPORT

Daniel F. Brunton,

Brunton Consulting Services, Ottawa

June 2004

 

Special Study Area NEA boundary

 

CONTENTS

 

1) INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................4

2) METHODS AND CRITERIA...................................................................5

    2.1 NATURAL ENVIRONMENT AREA DEFINITION ......................................................................................6

    2.2 WORK PLAN.................................................................................................................................................7

3) OVERVIEW OF THE SPECIAL STUDY AREA (ADAPTED FROM

BRUNTON 2000) ....................................................................................................10

4) ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE IN AND ABOUT SPECIAL STUDY AREA.......................................................................................................................12

    4.1 SIGNIFICANT VEGETATION......................................................................................................................12

    4.2 SIGNIFICANT NATIVE SPECIES ................................................................................................................13

    4.3 ECOLOGICAL CONNECTIVITY...................................................................................................................15

    4.4 ECOLOGICAL INTEGRITY...........................................................................................................................16

    4.5 HABITAT CONTINUITY .............................................................................................................................17

    4.6 SITUATION AND OTHER ECOLOGICAL ASSETS ......................................................................................18

    4.7 SYNTHESIS OF ECOLOGICAL VALUES .......................................................................................................19

    4.8 CONSTRAINTS TO NEA DELINEATION.....................................................................................................21    

    4.8.1 Ecological constraints ...........................................................................................................................21    

    4.8.2 Adjacent land use ....................................................................................................................................22

    4.8.3 Terry Fox Road extension impact.........................................................................................................24

5) NEA BOUNDARY AND PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS ...25

    5.1 PROPOSED NEA BOUNDARY ......................................................................................................................26

    5.2 NEA PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS..........................................................................................................29

    5.3 LINKAGE TO CARP RIVER ...........................................................................................................................30

6. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .............................31

    6.1 ECOLOGICAL REPRESENTATION PROVIDED BY THE NEA.....................................................................31

    6.2 PROTECTION ZONE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE NEA...............................................................................31

    6.3 PROTECTION OF OTHER SSA NATURAL FEATURES AND VALUES.......................................................32

 

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7. REFERENCES..................................................................................................32

 

FIGURES

    Figure 1: South March Highlands Special Study Areas (SSA)

    Figure 2: Significant Vegetation in the SSA

    Figure 3: Significant Native Plant Species Concentrations

    Figure 4: Ecological Connectivity in the SSA

    Figure 5: Ecological Situation and other Assets

    Figure 6: Provincially Significant Landscape

    Figure 7: Constraints to Ecological Significance

    Figure 8: Proposed NEA Boundary

    Figure 9: Proposed NEA in Extended Study Area

 

APPENDICES

    APPENDIX 1: Natural environment implications of the Terry Fox Drive alignment (Brunton

    2000)

    APPENDIX 2: Native vascular plants of the Special Study Area

    Appendix 3: NEA BOUNDARY DEFINITION FIELD NOTES (4 JUNE 2004)

 

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1) INTRODUCTION

Lands in the South March Highlands north of Richardson Side Road, west of the First

Line Road allowance and east of the proposed Terry Fox Drive extension are designated Special

Study Area (SSA) on Schedule B of the City of Ottawa Official Plan (Ottawa OP) (Figure 1).

Policy 3.11 of the Ottawa OP (Ottawa 2003a) outlines the intent of this designation, which is

generally to permit a refinement of designation boundaries within it. The policy states the

following:

"In particular, The City will undertake a study within 12 months of City Council’s adoption of

this Plan - in consultation with landowners, community groups, individuals and other

stakeholders with an interest to evaluate:

a) the appropriate boundaries of the Natural Environment Area [NEA] found within

the Special Study Area based on an assessment of natural values and its role as part of

a large greenspace in the area;

b) mechanisms to ensure public ownership of the Natural Environment Area lands;

c) The relationship of all lands surrounding the Special Study Area, including the

adjacent Natural Environment Area lands in the rural area to the west and north, to

determine the potential greenspace linkages, trail connections and opportunities for

lands acquisition;

d) the most appropriate land-use designations within the Special Study Area;

e) the location of the urban boundary.’‘

The present study addresses a) and a portion of c) (in bold, above). The objectives of this

study include:

confirmation of evaluation criteria employed in Brunton (2000) for NEA boundary

delineation;

 

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delineation of the southern boundary of the South March Highlands NEA boundary

within and adjacent to the SSA, including justification of any modifications of NEA

boundary delineated in Brunton (2000);

assessment of the ecological importance and function of the SSA NEA within the larger

context of the South March Highlands.

The present study does not involve original background field work. This was deemed

unnecessary, given the existing detailed in-house knowledge of the site and its surroundings.

There is also a substantial body of recent, additional natural environment documentation for this

area, as noted in Section 2.2. Nonetheless, the boundary recommendation of this study was

reviewed and confirmed in the field in June 2004 (Appendix 3).

 

2) METHODS AND CRITERIA

In order to understand the ecological significance and contributions of the SSA it is

necessary to evaluate it within the context of its larger natural unit, the South March Highlands.

This is a science-based investigation which intentionally does not factor in social issues such as

recreational desires or aesthetic interests. The intention here is to provide a clearly defined,

ecologically defensible boundary which can be accepted by any interested parties as a

technically reliable, objective delineation.

Determinations in this study are consistent with the directions and standards of the

Ontario Provincial Policy Statement (Ontario 1997) and its Natural Heritage Reference Manual

(Ontario 1999), as well as the Natural Environment Areas directions and discussion of the

Ottawa OP (Ottawa-Carleton 1999; Ottawa 2003a). Criteria employed in the definition and

delineation of NEA boundaries reflect the significant weight given to ecological function values

by the province and the municipality in these policy documents.

 

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2.1 Natural Environment Area definition

"Natural Environment Area designation applies to land having a high environmental

value as assessed through federal, provincial, and municipal studies. This designation identifies

sensitive areas where development could unduly stress ecological functions and where careful

management, restoration and enhancement are required. [This] ... includes areas identified by

the Province as significant wetlands and related complexes on the Canadian Shield, such as the

Carp Hills and South March Highland .... These lands are designated to ensure that the natural

features and functions inherent in each area are protected and preserved." (Ottawa 2003a)

The criteria employed for the identification of lands satisfying the Natural Environment

Area (NEA) definition are consistent with those employed in the identification of High Value

regionally significant natural areas in the City of Ottawa (former Region of Ottawa-Carleton)

Natural Environment System Strategy (Ottawa-Carleton 1997). They include:

- ecological integrity (level of ‘naturalness’, including representation of natural habitat

diversity of the larger natural area);

- habitat continuity (uninterrupted (or lighted interrupted) interior forest area (woodland

core not affected by disrupting ‘edge effect’) within which natural ecological functions

persist; ecologically appropriate size and shape of the area);

- ecological corridor function (size and importance of linkage between natural habitat

areas);

- natural biodiversity (diversity of native species and habitats represented within the

natural habitat);

- special features (number and population size of Provincial VTE (Vulnerable,

threatened, Endangered) native species (Oldham 1999) or Regionally (City of Ottawa)

significant native species (Brunton 1998); Provincially or Regionally significant

vegetation types (Bakowski 1996; Geomatics International 1995, respectively).

 

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Sites found to most completely satisfy a number of these criteria (highest diversity,

largest interior forest area, effective ecological linkage, etc.) were rated as High Value natural

areas within the City of Ottawa (former Region of Ottawa-Carleton). The South March

Highlands rated High (Brunton 1997) and is designated Natural Environment Area (NEA) in the

City’s Official Plan (Ottawa 2003a). Consistent with those guiding municipal and provincial

policies then, the proposed SSA NEA boundary represents a qualification by practical protection

and sustainability considerations of landscapes otherwise satisfying NEA designation. These

qualifying factors include:

- vulnerability of NEA lands to physical impact by external activities (adjacent land use,

recreational and transportation activity, landform character, etc.);

- isolation or fragmentation of NEA component habitats (physical separation from other

potential NEA land);

- restrictive impact of other municipal or provincial directions (municipal zoning,

Provincial Policy Statement, etc.);

- degree of representation of compromised significant habitats (peripheral locations,

degraded condition) within the NEA.

2.2 Work Plan

A comprehensive review of the documentation of natural environment features, functions

and related planning considerations of the SAA and its surroundings was undertaken. These

include the Ontario Provincial Policy Statement (PPS) (Ontario 1997; 1999) and the City of

Ottawa Official Plan (OP) (Ottawa-Carleton 1999; Ottawa 2003a). A chronological review of

natural environment inventory and significance assessment documentation was also undertaken

as follows, commencing with the initial natural environment assessments for the area:

Natural Environment Inventory of the Kanata Lakes Study Area, Kanata, Ontario

(Brunton 1992);

 

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South March Highlands Study Area: Natural Environment Assessment (Brunton 1992);

Natural Environment Systems Strategy for the Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton:

Stage 1, Regional information base and ecological profile. (Geomatics International Inc.

1995);

Candidate Life Science Areas of Natural and Scientific Interest in Site District 6E-12: A

Review and Assessment of Significant Natural Areas (Draft) (Brunton 1995);

Candidate Natural area evaluation (Ottawa-Carleton 1997);

Summary Natural Area reports for Natural Areas west of the Rideau River (500 series)

(Brunton 1997);

Provincial Policy Statement (Revised February 1, 1979) (Ontario 1997);

Natural Heritage Reference Manual (revised) ( Ontario 1999);

Official Plan, Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton (Ottawa-Carleton 1999);

Shirley’s Brook/Watts Creek Subwatershed Study (Dillon Consulting 1999;

Natural environment implications of the Terry Fox Drive alignment in the South March

Highlands, Kanata, City of Ottawa (Brunton 2000)

Terry Fox Drive Environmental Study Report (Dillon Consulting 2000)

Kanata Lakes Natural Environment Area Implementation Plan (Draft) (CH2MHILL.

2001);

Kanata Lakes North Serviceability Study (Cummings Cockburn Ltd. 2002);

Richardson Lands, Kanata - Initial identification of NEA lands (Muncaster 2002c);

Lots 8 and 9, Conc. I, Kanata - comments on natural environment features (Muncaster

2002b);

Kanata Lakes NEA boundary definition, Shirleys Brook and tree-cutting mitigation

(Muncaster 2002a);

Environmental Impact Statement: Kanata Lakes North, Kanata Ward, City of Ottawa

(Muncaster 2003);

City of Ottawa Official Plan (Ottawa 2003a);

Carp River Watershed/ Subwatershed Report (Draft) (Robinson Consultants 2003).

 

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Brunton (2000) provides considerable background information on the SSA and is appended to

this report for reference purposes (Appendix 1).

Established and verified ecological data were extracted from the above and employed in

the determination of ecological significant sites and landscapes (1) within the SSA, and (2)

within the Extended Study Area. The Extended Study Area (Figure 1) includes the landscape

between the SSA and adjacent natural lands to the north, east and west (i.e. the remainder of the

South March Highlands and westward to the Carp River). The ecological data derived from the

assessment of existing documentation are summarized and compiled below in order to identify

the overall area within and adjacent to the SSA containing ecologically significant landscapes

definable under terms of the PPS (Ontario 1997).

As noted above in 2.1) Natural Environment Area definition, the proposed NEA

boundary within the SSA directly reflects this objective analysis of the ecological feature and

function data which have been documented within and adjacent to the SSA. It is qualified,

however, by considerations of the ecological implications of land use designations and zoning,

the land management history of particular sites, and recent land management actions. Areas with

a recent history of intensive logging activity, otherwise significant unforested habitats

demonstrating several agricultural grazing impact, and sites with ecologically disruptive adjacent

land use practices, have poorer long-term ecological prospects. To achieve ecological

significance comparable to other SSA landscapes in such areas, if even possible, would require

substantial mitigation efforts.

This NEA boundary also reflects how the ecologically significant area within the SSA

connects with and relates to comparable ecologically significant lands in adjacent portions of the

South March Highlands. The boundary designation also considers the ecological connectivity

requirements between the SSA NEA and the natural lands in the Extended Study Area to the east

and north, and towards the Carp River. The Provincial Policy Statement (Ontario 1997)

requirement for ecological protection zones adjacent to Significant Natural Heritage Area

 

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Woodlands are then addressed in order to allow for physical protection of the NEA from

proposed development.

The NEA boundary within the SSA was reviewed and confirmed through an on-site

examination on 4 June 2004, with the boundary revisited and discussed with a group of

landowner representatives, City planners and review agency specialists on 9 June 2004. This

allowed for some additional natural environment features and function documentation (e.g.

degraded quality of open habitat immediately north of the Compensation Lands, additional

significant species observations). The on-site examination confirmed the location of the

proposed boundary line within the SSA at a finer scale and accommodated the landscape

changes which had occurred since the 2000 field season thereafter.

3) OVERVIEW OF THE SPECIAL STUDY AREA (ADAPTED FROM BRUNTON 2000)

The Special Study Area is situated at the southern end of the Precambrian Shield bedrock

outcrop known as the Carp Hills which extends from Kanata northwestward to the Ottawa River

in the Galetta area. This wetland-rich landform is unique in the City of Ottawa, constituting a

'island' of rugged, heavily-glaciated, rocky, Gatineau Hills-like habitat on the otherwise ±level,

sedimentary lowlands. The end result is a landscape with severely limited agricultural potential

and substantial challenges to residential/ commercial development. It has remained largely

undeveloped, constituting one of the largest areas of continuous natural landscape in the City.

The more or less original natural state coupled with a uniquely complex geology has resulted in

the southern portion of the Carp Hills (the South March Highlands) supporting a diverse and

significant natural biodiversity including Provincially and Regionally significant features and

habitats (Brunton 1992a; 1992b; 1997).

The South March Highlands incorporates a number of watercourses and their watershed

areas. The SSA incorporates catchment areas for the Carp River, Shirley’s Brook and Watts

Creek. Most of the drainage in the SSA is westward down the Hazeldean Escarpment slope and

 

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into the Carp River. The northeastern corner of the area drains eastward, however, flowing into

the south branch of Shirleys Brook. So too does the Watts Creek headwaters which commence

immediately west of the First Line Road ROW in the southern half of the area and flows easterly

through Kanata (‘Kizell Drain’), eventually discharging into the Ottawa River (Dillon

Consulting 2002). Numerous small and/ or intermittent drainage channels occur in the many

depressions and ravines occurring in this rugged landscape, all other eventually reaching the

Carp River system.

The SSA (Figure 1) is part of the South March Highlands natural area which, in various

configurations, has been identified as a candidate Provincially Significant Area of Natural and

Scientific Interest (ANSI) (Brunton 1995), a High Value Natural Environment System Strategy

(NESS) natural area (Ottawa-Carleton 1997; Brunton 1997) and Natural Environment Area-A

and Natural Environment Area B (Ottawa-Carleton 1999). The significance of this area is

reflected in the purchase of over 225 ha of natural landscape north of the railway for long-term

ecological protection purposes by the former Region in 2000 (Figure 9). This ‘Regional

Conservation Land’ area was enlarged by the City of Ottawa through the purchase of an

additional 20 ha of adjacent natural landscape in 2002.

The SSA supports a rich diversity of native plant and animal species typical of superior

examples of their respective habitats within the South March Highlands (Brunton 1992a). Some

of these species are found within the Highlands only in or immediately adjacent to the SSA (see

section 4.1, Significant native species, below). The mature upland deciduous forest habitat in the

northern half of the study area contributes the greatest number of these representative and locally

unique species (Brunton 1992b).

The SSA contains an extensive complex of common and rare habitats demonstrating a

high degree of ecological integrity. Over 80% of this area supports Regionally rare vegetation

types (Geomatics International 1995). A number of the nesting bird species present here and in

the adjacent forested landscape to the east breed successfully only in extensive woodlands

 

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(Brunton 1992b; Muncaster 2002c). Habitat fragmentation is rare here, with the First Line Road

ROW providing the only physical interruption crossing the length of the SSA.

A high level of natural biodiversity is identified as an important contributor to the

identification of a Provincially Significant natural area (Ontario 1997). The contribution of the

SSA to the ecological integrity of the larger South March Highlands natural area is an important

element of the latter area’s overall significance and conservation value.

4) ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE IN AND ABOUT SPECIAL STUDY AREA

The following summarizes the data presented in the existing documentation concerning

the ecological features and values of the SSA.

4.1 Significant vegetation

As noted above, a remarkably high proportion of the natural habitat of the SSA and its

surrounding lands constitutes Regionally Significant vegetation (viz., community/ landform

types covering less than 0.1% of the City of Ottawa - Ottawa-Carleton 1997). Over 80% of the

SSA is so rated, as is over 50% of the land between here and the Goulbourn Forced Road and

better than 90% of the uplands area westward along the Hazeldean Escarpment towards Huntmar

Road Geomatics Interntional 1995; Brunton 1997). Much of this significance comes from the

Regionally unusual granitic and marble bedrock underlying most of the South March Highlands

(and the Carp Hills). Among other unusual habitats resulting from this situation are the natural

bedrock barrens and meadows found commonly along the driest portion of the Hazeldean

Escarpment in the SSA.

 

Figure 2 illustrates the distribution of Regionally Significant vegetation in and about the

SSA. Beyond its intrinsic value as an unusual natural asset, Regionally Significant vegetation

 

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provides habitat for a wide variety of Regionally uncommon plant and animal species (see also

Figure 3).

Significant vegetation addresses the Natural Biodiversity, Ecological Integrity and

Special Features criteria for NEA identification and delineation.

4.2 Significant native species

A substantial diversity of significant vascular plant species occurs in and/ or immediately

adjacent to the SSA. While none constitute Provincially Rare species (Oldham 1999), a number

are Regionally Rare, being known from fewer than 10 contemporary populations in the City of

Ottawa (Brunton 1998). These significant species include:

Rusty Woodsia (Woodsia ilvensis) - [largely in KNL lands east of First Line Road ROW; also

Richardson Forest, Hazeldean Escarpment outcrops]

Southern Blue Grass (Poa saltuensis) - throughout hardwoods in SSA

Wood-rush (Luzula acuminata) - throughout hardwoods in SSA

Long-leaved Chickweed (Stellaria longifolia) – deciduous swamp forest at north end

Spiny Coon-tail (Ceratophyllum echinatum) [extirpated in 2003 by destruction of wetland

habitat in Richcraft Property east of First Line Road ROW]

Other native vascular plant species found in the SSA are considered to be Regionally

Significant, but at a lesser level of importance. These include taxa formerly considered

Regionally Rare but for which additional field studies have determined more than ten City of

Ottawa populations. Their occurrence in fewer than 20 known populations, however, indicates

that such Regionally Uncommon taxa (frequently indicative of unusual and/ or pristine natural

habitats) remain significant within the City of Ottawa as local indicators of ecological value.

The Regionally Significant (Uncommon) native vascular plant species known within the

SSA are as follows:

 

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- Short-husk Grass (Brachyelytrum erectum)

- Bear Sedge (Carex albursina)

- Head Sedge (Carex cephaloidea)

- Hairy Sedge (Carex hirtifolia) – largest known population in City of Ottawa in Lot 8 hardwood

forest habitat

- Bur-reed Sedge (Carex sparganioides)

-Cleavers (Galium aparine)

- White-licorice (Galium circaezans)

- Bicknell’s Geranium (Geranium bicknellii)

- Virginia Stickseed (Hackelia virginiana)

- Mountain-rice Grass (Oryzopsis racemosa)

- White Vervain (Verbena urticifolia)

- Purslane Speedwell (Veronica peregrina ssp. xalopensis)

The number of known City of Ottawa populations for each of these Regionally Significant (Rare

and Uncommon) species are noted with the appropriate entries in Appendix 2.

 

Figure 3 illustrates areas within and about the SSA where significant vascular plant

species are concentrated. These designations include locations for the Regionally Rare species

noted above as well as Regionally uncommon species (Brunton 1992a; Brunton 1992b). These

are defined as being known from fewer than 20 City of Ottawa populations and/ or which are

very locally distributed in Ottawa (Brunton, in prep.).

The habitat in these areas also tends to concentrate populations of breeding bird species

requiring uncommonly pristine forest habitats (Brunton 2000). In the SSA these include

Regionally uncommon nesting species such as Pileated Woodpecker, Scarlet Tanager, Blackthroated

Green Warbler, Ovenbird and Winter Wren (Brunton 1992a; Brunton 1992b; Muncaster

2002a).

 

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Significant native species addresses the Natural Biodiversity and Special Features criteria

for NEA identification and delineation.

4.3 Ecological connectivity

Brunton (1992a; 1992b; 1995; 1997; 2000), Ottawa-Carleton (1997), Ontario (1999) and

Dillon Consulting (2003) make it clear that the ecological connectivity of natural habitats in

general and of the natural lands in the SAA area in particular, is critical to the maintenance of

high quality, self-sustainable natural values here. Linkages between natural habitats contributes

significantly to the establishment and maintenance of natural biodiversity as well as permitting

for ecological recruitment and renewal within habitats.

 

Based on original faunal investigations, Dillon Consulting (2003) identifies areas of

important linkage value along the proposed Terry Fox Road ROW. Illustration of these are

accompanied in Figure 4 by the identification of other floristic and faunal linkages. These were

indicated by the continuous extent of particular habitats across watersheds and topographic

features (e.g. extensive upland forest and wetlands), and/ or by the identification of

geographically key locations between major natural habitat areas. The relatively greater

importance of particular linkage areas is subjectively indicated by more prominent graphic

symbols in Figure 4.

Based on the extent and location of their natural features and values the four most significant

areas for ecological connectivity in the SSA (Figure 4) are:

1) ‘The Saddle’ across the high, narrow ridge of mature deciduous forest connecting the

southwestern South March Highlands with natural habitats along the Hazeldean

Escarpment;

2) the area of mature upland and swamp forest habitats straddling the watershed divide

between the headwaters of Watts Creek and the Carp River;

3) the forested and sloping, scrubby western edge of the Hazeldean Escarpment;

 

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4) The upland forest habitat (the ‘Richardson Forest’) straddling the First Line Road

ROW between SSA Lot 6 and the upland/ lowland complex south of Watts Creek.

Other distinctive but ecologically less critical linkages are also noted on Figure 4, most of these

being identified from the faunal data in Dillon Consulting (2003).

Ecological connectivity addresses the Ecological Corridor Function and Habitat Continuity

criteria for NEA identification and delineation.

4.4 Ecological integrity

The degree of ‘naturalness’ of particular landscapes is determined through the consideration

of a number of over-lapping ecological factors. It is usually difficult, however, to quantitatively

measure the ecological condition of a particular site. The Coefficient of Conservation (CC)

rating, however, is useful in this regard. It represents a determination on a scale of 0 (lowest) to

10 (highest) of the degree to which particular native vascular plant species require undisturbed,

pristine habitat conditions. Accordingly, a calculation of the average CC rating of the native

vascular flora provides a useful absolute and relative measure of the ecological integrity of

particular areas (Oldham et al., 1995), particularly in regards to distinguishing the relative

ecological integrity of areas similar habitats.

Coefficient of Conservation ratings of 7 to 10 represent at given to species which are

particularly representative of intact natural habitats. An unusually number of species found in the

mature deciduous and mixed forests of the central and northern portion of the SSA and others on

the open, native outcrop barrens (over 35) have such high CC ratings (Appendix 2). These

include Wild Leek (Allium tricoccum), Rusty Woodsia (Woodsia ilvensis), Ground-pine

(Lycopodium complanatum (s. str.)), Horse-gentian (Triosteum aurantiacum), White Bedstraw

(Galium circaezans), Speedwell (Veronica peregrina ssp. xalapensis), Spiny Coon-tail

(Ceratophyllum echinatum), Rose Twisted-stalk (Streptopus lanceolatus) and Wood Lily (Lilium

philadelphicum) (Brunton 1992a; 1992b; 2000).

 

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The average CC rating of the 268 species of native vascular plants known from the SSA is

4.47 (Appendix 2). This is an exceptionally high level for an urban area within the City of

Ottawa, likely placing amongst the top 10 ratings of the ±185 candidate natural sites being

examined in the on-going Urban Natural Areas study (pers. obs.).

The exceptional level of native biodiversity representation within the South March Highlands

as a whole is largely attributable to the relatively pristine condition of major habitats best

represented within the SSA (Brunton (1992a; 1992b). The mature hardwood forest and bedrock

outcrop barrens are particularly notable in this regard.

Invasive plant species - non-native plants which aggressively invade native habitats and

degrade or replace native vegetation - pose a serious threat to the ecological integrity of natural

habitats in southern Canada (White et al., 1993), particularly so in and around urban areas. The

relatively large areas of intact natural habitat within the SSA in particular and the South March

Highlands in general, however, has maintained the number and severity of invasive plant impacts

here at a level well below that typically encountered in the City of Ottawa (Brunton 2000; per

obs.).

4.5 Habitat continuity

The extent of interior forest - the area of woodland unaffected by negative external ‘edge

effects’ - offers a valuable indication of site ecological integrity as well as identifying potential

concentration areas for disturbance-intolerant flora and fauna (Ottawa-Carleton 1997). It is

defined in the on-going City of Ottawa Urban Natural Areas study as constituting the area of

continuous woodland occurring 100 m or more in from the edge of natural forest habitat. Figure

5 indicates the approximate position of the large areas of interior forest in and about the SSA.

The size and shape of natural habitat areas are also important contributing factors for the

sustainability of a natural area, with smaller, more irregular areas being more exposed and thus

 

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vulnerable to ‘edge effect’ (Harris 1984; Riley & Mohr 1994). The existence of a large block of

native habitat centred on the First Line Road ROW (Figures 5 and 7) and presently connected to

even larger natural areas to the west (Hazeldean Escarpment), north (the Regional Conservation

Lands and interior South March Highlands) and east (Watts Creek system), is important for the

sustainability of natural values in the SSA.

4.6 Situation and other ecological assets

The highland situation of much of the SSA reduces the vulnerability of many natural habitat

areas within it to upstream negative impacts such as catastrophic pollution events and the

cumulative impact of smaller pollution events and habitat disturbance. Conversely, this enhances

the importance of the headwater areas within the SSA as these provide ecological resources and

protection for the down-stream areas along Shirleys Brook, Watts Creek and the Carp River

(Figure 5). In establishing a policy of no-net-loss of subwatershed aquatic habitat, the City of

Ottawa Infrastructure Master Plan (Ottawa 2003b) acknowledges increased municipal and

provincial responsibilities for enhanced levels of source water planning and protection for both

short-term and long-term conservation purposes.

 

One area abutting the SSA constitute an element of the Provincially Significant South March

Highlands Wetland Complex (CH2MHILL 2001). This Provincially Significant Wetland (PSW)

element constitutes the eastern end of the thicket swamp by the railway at north end of the First

Line Road ROW (Figure 5). Development (such as residential housing) is prohibited within

Provincially Significant Wetlands in the City of Ottawa (Ottawa 2003a).

The mature maple swamp forest draining into the Carp River through Lot 7 constituting

much of the 14.4 ha ‘Compensation Lands’ area established as part of the mitigation for illegal

forest clearing in parts of the KNL lands, is a Locally Significant, Class 4 Evaluated Wetland.

This Kizell Drain Wetland was evaluated as scoring 585 of a the required minimum of 600

points required to be considered a Provincially Significant Wetland (Ontario 1994; S. Murphy,

pers. comm.). A review of this classification may or may not determine that PSW scores are

 

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achieved in this wetland, although it clearly is very closely to achieving that status. Protection of

Locally Significant Wetlands is stated as a goal in the City of Ottawa’s Official Plan.

This attribute addresses the Ecological Integrity, Natural Biodiversity and Habitat Continuity

criteria for NEA identification and delineation.

4.7 Synthesis of ecological values

The Natural Environment Area designation within the SSA identifies ecologically

sustainable and manageable landscapes contained within topographically measurable habitat

limits. Sections 4.1 through 4.6 have addressed the significance of the various natural

environment assets which combine to identify those areas which satisfy the Ottawa OP criteria

(Ottawa 2003a) for NEA lands. They also, however, satisfy criteria for identifying Provincially

Significant areas ("ecologically important in terms of features, functions, representation or

amount and contributing to the quality and diversity of an identifiable geographic or natural

heritage-system" (Ontario 1999)).

To have ecological assets within a particular area which satisfy the criteria for one of these

Provincially Significant natural heritage values is notable. To have ecological resources within a

particular area which satisfying the criteria for three of these Provincially Significant natural

heritage values is exceptional, however, and attests the remarkable nature of the SSA in

particular and the South March Highlands in general. The particular natural heritage systems

satisfied are described below.

Provincially Significant Wetland (PSW): "identified as provincially significant by the

Ministry of Natural Resources using evaluation procedures established by the province; this

applies to elements of the South March Highlands Wetland complex found at the north end

of the SSA.

 

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Significant Woodlands: "… treed areas that provide environmental and economic benefits

such as erosion prevention, water retention, provision of habitat, recreation and the

sustainable harvest of woodland products …and vary in their level of significance " (Ontario

1997). Provincially Significant Woodlands are identified through consideration of woodland

size, ecological function, fragmentation characteristics and rarity (including old age)

(Ontario 1999). These values are well represented within the SSA, as identified in both the

Site District 6E-12 assessment (Brunton 1995) and the Natural Environment System Strategy

study (Brunton 1997), as well as this review (above).

Significant Wildlife Habitat: "Specific wildlife habitats of concern may include areas where

species concentrate at a vulnerable point in their annual life cycle; and areas which are

important to migratory or non-migratory species" (Ontario 1997). This is determined

through the identification of significant values including 1) seasonal concentration of

animals, 2) rare vegetation communities or specialized habitats for wildlife, 3) habitats for

species of conservation concern and 4) wildlife movement corridors (Ontario 1999). Again,

these values are well represented within the SSA, as identified in both the Site District 6E-12

assessment (Brunton 1995) and the Natural Environment System Strategy study (Brunton

1997), as well as this review (above).

 

Figure 6 illustrates a simple additive accounting of areas in and about the SSA containing the

Provincially Significant ecological values identified above. This does not, however, factor in

significant landscape changes presently underway, habitat degradation of peripheral areas,

adjacent conflicting land uses and land use projections, habitat fragmentation, etc. These latter

considerations (see 4.8, below) are also important in establishing the limits of a sustainable,

ecologically manageable Natural Environment Area. This designation of provincial significance

does not simply repeat the candidate ANSI boundary suggestion (Brunton 1995) but represents

an independent delineation of areas which support features and functions of sufficient kind and

quality to satisfy the standards established by the Ontario Provincial Policy Statement (Ontario

1997).

 

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4.8 Constraints to NEA delineation

Although fundamentally science-based, NEA boundaries are not determined in isolation of

existing and future natural environment conditions and human activities, both on and off site.

Review of the objective ecological information with consideration of existing and anticipated

external land use qualifies our understanding of the long-term natural sustainability of particular

areas. This provides direction for the delineation of NEA boundaries. Discussion of the most

important of these considerations follows.

4.8.1 Ecological constraints

Fragmentation and isolation: The SSA in particular and the South March Highlands in general

have increasingly become ‘islands’ of natural habitat at the edge of the expanding residential and

commercial core of the City of Ottawa urban landscape. Such development and related activities

pose a significant threat to the long-term sustainability and ecological integrity of the natural

values described above.

Intensive agricultural activity (cropping and pasturing) long ago transformed the deeper soil

areas closer to the Carp River from their former natural condition. A large agricultural area east

of the SSA at the railway line is similarly no longer in natural condition (Figure 7) and presents a

physical barrier to most ecological processes along the edge of adjacent natural habitats.

Physical impact: Forest clearing in the spring of 2002 significantly impacted several hectares of

woodland immediately east of the First Line Road ROW (Muncaster 2002a). This canopy

disturbance negatively impacts ecological functions (most notable, ecological connectivity and

habitat integrity) in the surrounding woodlands. Numerous unofficial trails have been developed

throughout the South March Highlands and surrounding landscape by hikers, cross-country

skiers and most notably in recent years by mountain bicycle riders. Soil erosion and tree root

damage on steep slopes, in wet depressions and in shallow soil areas is locally significant in

many areas along these trails (pers. obs.).

 

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Extent of interior forest: The First Line Road ROW transects continuous natural habitat area.

Despite a recent (post 1999 ice-storm ?) clearing and leveling of the surface, however, the ROW

constitutes a relatively minor negative impact on adjacent natural habitat. Forest habitat has been

maintained up to and out over the edge of the ROW for much of its length along both sides,

though it is severely disturbed adjacent to the new residential development north of Richardson

Side Road (Richcraft Homes property). Native shrubbery and ground vegetation has developed

in many places within the ROW and contributes to habitat continuity.

Although too disturbed and degraded in and of themselves to constitute viable natural

habitat, portions of this narrow corridor, if managed in association with adjacent natural forest,

demonstrate considerable potential for ecological rehabilitation. Accordingly, the concession

ROW does not constitute a significant, permanent limitation to the extent of interior forest. At

present, however, the open condition of the ROW facilitate the spread of invasive, non-native

vegetation along the eastern side of the SSA.

4.8.2 Adjacent land use

The land uses on adjacent properties have a substantial influence on the ecological integrity,

function and significance of natural areas (see Sections 4.1 through 4.6 for a discussion of the

relative importance of such factors within the SSA). Residential development presently

underway as well as future changes resulting from residential and transportation development

commitments on other adjacent properties (Figure 1), have important implications for the

ecological significance and sustainability of the natural landscape within the SSA. The major

adjacent land use issues affecting the SSA are discussed below.

Richcraft Homes Property: Extensive forest clearing has been conducted for residential

development on the urban lands immediately north of the Richardson Side Road, east of the First

Line Road (photo below). These lands are in the process of being converted from a natural

condition. This action reduces the overall ecological diversity and significance of the South

 

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March Highlands and directly affects ecological connectivity values and the extent of interior

forest in the Richardson Forest portion of the SSA.

Developer representatives, City planning staff and review agency specialists along First

Line ROW by cleared forest on Richcraft Homes property (9 June 2004)

KNL lands: Residential development is committed in the majority of the KNL lands between the

First Line Road ROW and Goulbourn Forced Road. This has major implications for the

ecological significance of both the SSA in particular and the South March Highlands in general.

That includes a major reduction in the ecological corridor function presently active between the

Regional Conservation Lands north of the Terry Fox Road ROW and the Trillium Woods Urban

Natural Feature (UNF) within and immediately east of the Extended Study Area, along either

side of Goulbourn Forced Road (Figure 9). It will also increase the edge effect impact of the

Terry Fox Road ROW on the adjacent Regional Conservation Lands habitat. The KNL

 

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residential development area is transected by Kizell Pond Urban Natural Feature along Watts

Creek.

The KNL development plan dramatically reduces the existing area of ecological connectivity

between the SSA and other significant natural areas of the South March Highlands (Brunton

1992a; 1992b; 2000). The remaining UNF west of Goulbourn Forced Road constitutes about 100

ac (40 ha) of upland and wetland habitat (S. Murphy, pers. comm.). The Richardson Forest in

Lot 6 will be particularly negatively effected, being completely isolated from comparable natural

habitats to the north and east. As well, virtually all of the interior forest values of the Richardson

Forest will be eliminated.

The loss of continuous forest habitat within the KNL lands north of Watts Creek in the West

Block will have similar though less intense impacts on the northern portion of the SSA. The

negative impact is lessened in that area by the existence of continuous natural habitat along the

top and face of the Hazeldean Escarpment to the west of the SSA (Figures 2, 3, 4 and 5).

Development of portions of the West Block on the KNL property will result in the loss of native

biodiversity, a reduction in biological restoration and recruitment potential and the initiation of

microclimatic changes. It will inevitably reduce the self-sustainability and overall ecological

significance of the adjacent portion of the SSA. Without detailed on-site examination of the

lands involved, however, it is difficult to quantify the loss of particular natural features.

4.8.3 Terry Fox Road extension impact

Dillon Consulting (2003) has established that construction of the proposed Terry Fox Road

extension across the SSA will have a significant, negative ecological impact ...."Terry Fox Drive

will form a barrier and break between the northern and southern portions of the presently

continuous South March Highlands [natural] area". Recognizing the importance of maintaining

ecological connectivity across this barrier, Dillon Consulting. (2003) proposes a system of

modified culverts and a major sub-roadway ecological passageway along the preferred roadway

ROW to partially mitigate these loses.

 

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As part of the recent discussions on the design of this road, an alternative route crossing the

SSA and located slightly west of the preferred route (Dillon Consulting 2003) was suggested by

a landowner. Dillon Consulting (2003) considered that the Balys & Associates alternative route

would have "a higher impact on the environment (volume of rock knolls to be removed, and

wetland impacted)". In a later assessment of the natural environment implications of the Balys &

Associates proposed route, it was suggested (Muncaster 2002b) that the degree of ecological

disturbance along this alternative route for the crossing of the Hazeldean Escarpment and the

SAA might be no greater or even somewhat reduced to that of the preferred Terry Fox Road

ROW. That opinion, however, does not address the question of maintaining ecological

connectivity across the roadway ROW other than to suggest that roadway development along

either alternative will inevitably have some impact.

Regardless of the route selected, it is clear that the extension of the Terry Fox Road arterial

across the South March Highlands will constitute a major ecological challenge to the

Provincially Significant values in and about the SSA and throughout a large segment of the

South March Highlands. Major mitigation measures, as described above, will be required to at

least reduce the losses of significant ecological value here.

 

5) NEA BOUNDARY AND PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS

The proposed NEA boundary encloses a representative, self-sustainable natural landscape

which satisfies Natural Environment Area criteria of the Ottawa OP (Ottawa 2003a) as well as

Provincially Significant Woodland, Provincially Significant Wetland and Provincially

Significant Wildlife Habitat delineation standards called for in the Ontario Provincial Policy

Statement (Ontario 1997; 1999). As described above, the NEA considers not only the present

ecological assets and capabilities of the landscape in question but addresses long-term

sustainability in light of the on-going development of adjacent lands.

 

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5.1 Proposed NEA boundary

The SSA NEA boundary proposed as a result of this investigation is illustrated in Figure 8.

As noted previously, the natural features and functions of adjacent landscapes are important to

long-term ecological sustainability of this area. Accordingly, NEA identification criteria are

applied to the Extended Study Area as well and the resulting boundary is also depicted on Figure

8. Definition of all portions of the NEA boundary within the Extended Study Area have not been

defined with the same degree of rigour, however, as has been applied within and immediately

adjacent to the SSA. The location of the proposed NEA boundary within the SSA was reviewed

and confirmed by D. F. Brunton and S. Murphy during the field inspection of 4 June 2004. A

summary of decision points and observations is provided in Appendix 3. The proposed NEA

boundary in the larger Extended Study Area has not been field checked beyond the SSA.

The present critical analysis of NEA boundary requirements is largely consistent with and

supportive of the conclusions drawn by the earlier NEA boundary analyses for the lands west of

the First Line ROW (Brunton 1992a; Brunton 1992b; 2000). For the lands east of the First Line

Road ROW, the present analysis is largely consistent with the NEA boundary conclusions of

Brunton (1992a), Brunton (1992b), CH2MHILL (2001) and Ottawa-Carleton (1999). It does not

match well, however, with the significantly smaller NEA boundary proposed by Muncaster

(2002a; 2003) (see also 4.8.2, above).

 

The NEA boundary proposed in this study (Figure 8) involves substantial reductions in the

area of provincial ecological significance depicted in Figure 6. The reductions are intended to

exclude only natural landscape areas for which development approvals have been granted and/ or

habitats which, subsequent to adjacent development being completed, will no longer sustain the

significant ecological features and values they presently possess. The proposed NEA, however,

still retains all of the ecological functions identified as significant within the SSA, as well as a

large majority of the significant ecological features. The major areas to be excluded and the

implications of their removal are as follows:

 

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Richardson Forest (Lot 6)

- moderately significant upland forest vegetation isolated from the remainder of South March

Highlands significant landscape by long-standing agricultural development to the north and

by on-going residential development to the east for which the City of Ottawa has committed

development approvals;

- linkage area with the proposed SSA NEA near the First Line Road ROW negatively

impacted by the 2002 forest clearing and to be completely severed by proposed residential

development of Urban lands south of Watts Creek;

- ecological function of the forest area also increasingly impacted by expanding residential

development south of Richardson Side Road (Heritage Hills);

- preservation of locally or Regionally significant features (e.g. White Pine forest area) can

be addressed at the site plan level of subdivision design.

Drainage route to Carp River from Lot 7 Evaluated Wetland

- degraded upland scrub habitat which is regenerating from extensive, long-term agricultural

activity and which supports few natural values;

- wetland protection requirements can be accommodated by typical fisheries habitat

protection measures in subwatershed planning (including 30 m no-development buffer),

subdivision site planning and/ or through landowner stewardship initiatives (water course

enhancements, etc.) (see 5.3, below).

Rock outcrop habitat in Lot 7 to south of Evaluated Wetland

- habitat severely degraded by long-term agricultural activity (grazing) with few natural or

representative vegetation elements remaining.

KNL Lands south of Terry Fox Road to Kizell Pond UNF boundary

- area is entirely committed to urban scale residential development.

 

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Although reduced in size and ecological significance by the constraints identified above in

Section 4.8 (see also Figure 9), the proposed SSA Natural Environment Area remains a highly

significant natural asset. Key sustainable ecological values include:

Biodiversity:

- retains a rich assembly of native biodiversity with no known SSA native species excluded

from the proposed NEA.

Special features:

- full representation of the significant vegetation types and of all known SAA significant

species (Regionally Significant fauna, uncommon flora) retained;

- Provincially and Locally Significant Wetland components.

Ecological connectivity:

- linkages with the remainder of the West Block to the east and with the Regional

Conservation Lands to the north retained; the latter linkage has the additional ecological

benefit of including PSW habitat.

Ecological integrity:

- retains extensive area of natural, unfragmented forest habitat with little or no significant

non-native elements.

This combination of ecological assets indicates that the proposed NEA area would remain

large enough and with sufficient ecological function to be self-sustainable despite the negative

impacts of surrounding development. This capacity is enhanced by the upland nature of most of

the site, making it potentially less vulnerable than down-slope areas. Protection of these

significant values will require designation of a buffer zone between proposed development areas

and retained NEA lands (see 5.2, below).

 

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5.2 NEA protection requirements

Ecological buffer areas are required to provide a protective transition zone between

ecologically sensitive and Provincially significant habitats and negative external influences

(Ontario 1997). The size of such protection zones are left to the determination of particular

planning authorities through the application of good planning principles. The Ontario Wetland

policy identifies an Adjacent Area extending 120 m beyond Provincially Significant Wetlands

(or PSW complex elements) within which the needs of a sufficiently wide protective natural

vegetation buffer should be considered (Ontario 1994). In the case of the appropriate protection

zone surrounding the Provincially Significant NEA area within the South March Highlands SSA,

that direction is provided by the City of Ottawa OP (Ottawa 2003a).

An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is required for new development within a 30

metre distance of the boundary of an NEA or Urban Natural Feature to "manage the

transition zone between urban development and natural features …" (Ottawa 2003a). The EIS

would determine the mitigation measures, including consideration of a no-development buffer,

required to provide the appropriate level of protection for the NEA’s significant values. This

NEA protection zone performs the same function identified for ‘Adjacent Lands’ in the OPPS

(Ontario 1997).

The Natural Heritage Reference Manual (Ontario 1999) recommends a 50 m ‘Adjacent

Lands’ zone abutting Significant Woodland and Significant Wildlife habitat " … for considering

whether development may have an impact on significant wildlife [and woodland] habitat".

Particularly in light of the uncommonly sensitive nature of the South March Highlands

landscape, therefore, establishment a comparable no-net-impact zone of 50 m in width is both

appropriate and ecologically justifiable along the NEA boundary in the SSA. This is particularly

so in light of South March Highlands soils being generally more vulnerable to disturbance and

less capable of supporting disturbance-tolerant natural vegetation than landscapes on the clay

and loam based lowlands which dominate eastern Ontario (Chapman and Putnam 1984).

 

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The Provincial Policy Statement and the Ottawa OP (Ontario 1997; Ottawa 2003a) would not

be contradicted by a particular development proposal on abutting lands, then, if it is first

demonstrated by an competent EIS study that no net negative impact would result for the

significant features and functions for which the NEA or Urban Natural Feature was identified.

5.3 Linkage to Carp River

Linkage is provided between the SSA Natural Environment Area and the Carp River in Lot 7

along a degraded drainage channel through areas of transformed agricultural land, upland thicket

and scrubby forest over partially buried granitic bedrock outcrop. This narrow and relatively

lightly vegetated corridor provides limited potential for upland habitat representation though it

may offer significant aquatic functional values (fisheries habitat, water quality protection, etc.) in

the Carp River. Accordingly, maintenance of the drainage channel within its natural course and

application of the standard City of Ottawa 30 m no-development water course and fish habitat

buffer should satisfy both the policy and the intent of stream set-back directions provided in the

Ottawa OP (Ottawa 2003a).

 

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6. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Despite existing and proposed negative impacts from development on neighbouring

properties, the proposed SSA Natural Environment Area constitutes a self-sustainable,

provincially significant natural landscape. It can continue indefinitely to provide an important

contribution to the ecological wealth of the larger South March Highlands and indeed, to the City

of Ottawa. The major considerations in achieving this ecologically important result are noted

below.

6.1 Ecological representation provided by the NEA

The proposed NEA boundary reflects the objective analysis of the known ecological features,

values and processes of the SSA. In recognition of the implications of present and future land

uses on the long-term sustainability of natural landscape values in the NEA, the recommended

protection area is substantially smaller in extent than the landscape presently definable as being

Provincially Significant (Ontario 1997; 1999). The proposed NEA boundary, however, still

contains the majority of SSA natural values and largely supports similar protection area

conclusions of Brunton (1992a), Brunton (1992b), CH2MHILL (2001) and Ottawa-Carleton

(1999).

6.2 Protection Zone requirements for the NEA

Adjacent Lands are identified by the OPPS (Ontario 1997) as providing a transitional zone

between significant natural landscapes (Provincially Significant Wetlands, Woodlands, Wildlife

Habitat) and development. The Ontario Natural Heritage Manual recommends a 50 m wide

Adjacent Lands zone around landscapes like those of the SMH NEA (Provincially Significant

Woodlands and Wildlife Habitat), while a comparable 30 m wide zone is identified as requiring

an EIS within the City of Ottawa (Ottawa 2003a). Given the additional level of ecological

sensitivity of this granitic-based landscape, however, the establishment of a 50 m Adjacent Area

 

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zone surrounding the SMH NEA lands is both ecologically appropriate and defensible, and is

recommended here.

6.3 Protection of other SSA natural features and values

Some locally or regionally significant natural features (e.g. the White Pine grove in the

Richardson Forest) are not at a sufficient scale of ecological importance to be included within

the NEA proposed here. Protection and preservation of such areas should be accommodated,

however, at the site plan level of subdivision design.

 

7. REFERENCES

Bakowsky, W. D. 1996. Natural heritage resources in Ontario: vegetation communities of

southern Ontario. Natural Heritage Information Centre, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources,

Peterborough.

Brunton, D. F. 1992a. Natural Environment Inventory of the Kanata Lakes Study Area, Kanata,

Ontario. [Report for Genstar Corp., Ottawa/ City of Kanata, Kanata], Daniel Brunton Consulting

Services, Ottawa.

Brunton, D. F. 1992b. South March Highlands Study Area: Natural Environment Assessment.

[Report for Genstar Corporation/ City of Kanata, Kanata], Daniel Brunton Consulting Services,

Ottawa.

Brunton, D. F. 1995. Life Science Areas of Natural and Scientific Interest in Site District 6E-12:

A Review and Assessment of Significant Natural Areas. [Unpublished draft report] Ontario

Ministry of Natural Resources, Kemptville.

 

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Brunton, D.F. 1997. Summary Natural Area reports for Natural Areas west of the Rideau River

(500 series). Planning and Development Approvals Department Report 28-08d, Region of

Ottawa-Carleton, Ottawa.

Brunton, D. F. 1998. Distributionally significant vascular plants of the Region of Ottawa-

Carleton. Planning and Development Approvals Department Report #28-09, Region of Ottawa-

Carleton, Ottawa.

Brunton, D. F. 2000. Natural environment implications of the Terry Fox Drive alignment in the

South March Highlands, Kanata, City of Ottawa [Unpublished report for Planning and

Development Approvals Branch, Region of Ottawa-Carleton], Daniel Brunton Consulting

Services, Ottawa.

Chapman, L. J. and D. F. Putnam. 1984. The Physiography of Southern Ontario (Third

Edition). Ontario Geological Survey Special Volume 2, Toronto.

CH2MHILL. 2001. Kanata Lakes Natural Environment Area Implementation Plan

[Unpublished draft report for City of Ottawa]. CH2MHill, Ottawa.

Cummings Cockburn Ltd. 2002. Kanata Lakes North Serviceability Study [Unpublished report

for KNL Developments Inc.], Cummings Cockburn Ltd., Ottawa.

Dillon Consulting. 1999. Shirley’s Brook and Watts Creek Subwatershed Study. [Unpublished

report for Region of Ottawa-Carleton], Dillon Consulting Ltd., Gloucester.

Dillon Consulting. 2002. Terry Fox Drive Environmental Assessment, Eagleson Road to March

Road (Two volumes) [Unpublished report for the Region of Ottawa-Carleton and City of

Kanata], Dillon Consulting Ltd., Ottawa.

 

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Dillon Consulting. 2003. Terry Fox Drive Environmental Assessment Addendum and

Functional Design Brief Update: Richardson Side Road to Realigned Goulbourn Forced Road

(First Draft) [Unpublished report for the City of Ottawa], Dillon Consulting Ltd., Ottawa.

Geomatics International Inc. 1995. Natural Environment Systems Strategy for the Regional

Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton: Stage 1, Regional information base and ecological profile.

Planning and Property Department Report 28-02, Region of Ottawa-Carleton, Ottawa.

Harris, L. D. 1984. The Fragmented Forest: Island Biogeography Theory and the Preservation

of Biotic Diversity. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

[Muncaster, B.]. 2002a. Kanata Lakes NEA boundary definition, Shirleys Brook and treecutting

mitigation (Unpublished report for the City of Ottawa), ESG International Inc., Ottawa.

Muncaster, B. 2002b. Lots 8 and 9, Conc. I, Kanata - comments on natural environment

features, 8 November 2002, in lit. to E. Balys & Associates Inc., ESG International Inc., Ottawa.

Muncaster, B. 2002c. Richardson Lands, Kanata - Initial identification of NEA lands, 31

October 2002, in lit. to S. Cunliffe, City of Ottawa, Ottawa.

[Muncaster, B.] 2003. Environmental Impact Statement: Kanata Lakes North, Kanata Ward,

City of Ottawa (unpublished report for KNL Developments Inc.), Muncaster Environmental

Planning, Ottawa.

Oldham, M. J. 1999. Natural heritage resources of Ontario: Rare vascular plants (Third

edition). Natural Heritage Information Centre, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources,

Peterborough.

Oldham, M.J., W.D. Bakowsky and D.A. Sutherland. 1995. Floristic quality assessment

system for southern Ontario. Natural Heritage Information Centre, Peterborough.

 

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Ontario. 1994. Ontario wetland evaluation system, Southern Manual (3rd Edition - revised).

Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Toronto.

Ontario. 1997. Provincial Policy Statement (Revised February 1, 1979). Queens Printer for

Ontario, Toronto.

Ontario. 1999. Natural Heritage Reference Manual (revised). Ontario Ministry of Natural

Resources, Toronto.

Ottawa. 2003a. City of Ottawa Official Plan. Publication 1-28, City of Ottawa, Ottawa.

Ottawa. 2003b. Infrastructure Management Plan for the City of Ottawa Official Plan, City of

Ottawa, Ottawa.

Ottawa-Carleton. 1997. Candidate natural area evaluation. Planning and Development

Approvals Branch Report 28-08, Region of Ottawa-Carleton, Ottawa.

Ottawa-Carleton. 1999. Official Plan, Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton;

consolidation - April 1999. Report 6-58, Region of Ottawa-Carleton, Ottawa.

Riley, J. L. & P. Mohr. 1994. The natural heritage of southern Ontario's natural landscapes.

Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Aurora.

Robinson Consultants Inc. 2003. Carp River Watershed/ Subwatershed Study Report (Draft).

(Unpublished report for the City of Ottawa), Robinson Consultants, Ottawa.

White, D. J. , E. Haber & C. J. Keddy. 1993. Invasive plants of natural habitats in Canada.

Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa.

 

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Appendix 1:

Natural environment implications of the Terry

Fox Drive alignment in the South March

Highlands, Kanata, Region of Ottawa-Carleton

(Brunton 2000)

 

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Natural environment implications of the Terry Fox Drive alignment

in the South March Highlands, City of Kanata, Region of Ottawa-

Carleton, Ontario

Daniel F. Brunton

September 2000

prepared for:

Planning and Development Services Branch,

Region of Ottawa-Carleton

 

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INTRODUCTION

A review and assessment of the natural environment implications of the proposed Terry Fox

Drive alignment between Richardson Side Road and Morgan's Grant subdivision in Kanata, Region of

Ottawa-Carleton, has been undertaken in light of the recommendations of Region of Ottawa-Carleton

Planning and Development Approvals Department (Tunnacliffe in lit., 17 April 2000).This area is

presently designated as Natural Environment Area (B) in the Regional Official Plan (Region of Ottawa-

Carleton 1999) and, within Natural Environment System Strategy (NESS) Natural Area 539, contains a

wide variety of Regionally uncommon to rare natural environment features and values (Brunton 1997).

Selection of route 4-1 as the preferred route raises issues regarding environmental boundaries between

the route 4-1 and the existing urban boundary (First Line Road allowance).

The primary focus of this assessment, therefore, concerns the ecological implications for the

±115 ha area of NEA land between the option 4-1 and 4-2 alignments which would be affected by the

selection of alignment option 4-1 (hereafter, the 4-1/ 4-2 study area) (Figure 1). The present

investigation considers the following questions:

1) would the assessment of significance and recommended Natural Environment Areas be likely to

change significantly given the Terry Fox Drive Extension Alignment 4-1 ?

2) what factors or ecological functions within the significant areas, if any, are likely to take on

added importance given the Terry Fox Drive extension ?

To answer these questions, existing documentation was reviewed, particularly the 1992 natural

environment inventories of the South March Highlands and Kanata Lakes areas (Brunton 1992a;

1992b), and new field investigations were undertaken.

 

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Figure 1: The 4-1/ 4-2 study area (hatched area) (route 4-1 (approx.) = dotted line)

WORK PLAN

Subsequent to access approvals arranged by Region of Ottawa-Carleton personnel, field

investigations were undertaken throughout the 4-1/ 4-2 study area, with all affected boundaries being

examined directly, all major habitats visited, and potential natural corridors to other NEA areas

investigated. The area south of Richardson Side Road between the edge of the Hazeldean Escarpment

and First Line Road (i.e. by the communications tower) which had not previously been evaluated, was

also inventoried. Notes were recorded and voucher specimens made of known or potentially significant

native plant species. Faunal studies, particularly breeding bird and herptiles (amphibians and reptiles)

were also conducted in the 4-1/ 4-2 study area in the spring/ early summer to fill out the biological

information base on the area.

 

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Field examinations were conducted in spring, early summer and late summer (18 April, 29 May,

27 June, 4 July and 16 August 2000) in order to develop a fuller appreciation of seasonal variation

within the study area landscape. Several of these field investigations were undertaken in the company of

David Miller, Regional Planner, Planning and Development Approvals Branch, Region of Ottawa-

Carleton. Elements of the investigation included:

1. the range of significant natural features and assets existing in the 4-1/ 4-2 study area, including:

. an on-site proofing of existing documentation of representation vegetation, habitats and

species;

. the identification/ confirmation of study area habitats and features supporting local/

regional ecological functions;

2. the boundaries of the area(s) required to enclose and protect sustainable representation of the natural assets of the

4-1/ 4-2 study area, focusing on 1992 proposed NEA boundaries, including:

. the size and location of significant features and populations (individual species, breeding/

hibernation/ and/or feeding sites, etc.);

. size and extent of core representative natural area (including representative and

Regionally exceptional vegetation);

. size and extent of natural corridors and connections to ecologically contributing satellite

areas;

. on-site wetland resources and functional watercourse connections with adjacent drainage

systems;

3. identification of linkage opportunities:

. existing/ potential linkages between the proposed 4-1/ 4-2 study area protected area(s)

and neighbouring significant natural landscapes in the South March Highlands (Trillium

Woods, Natural Environment Area (B)).

4. identification of assumptions and conditions concerning site restoration and impact mitigation along the Terry Fox

Drive corridor:

. approaches in associated lands during and after construction.

From these inventory efforts and the review of existing documentation, ecological clarifications (as

noted below) were documented to assist in the resolution of outstanding planning issues.

 

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STUDY AREA CONTEXT

The natural environment resources of the 4-1/ 4-2 study area are summarized in Tunnacliffe in

lit.(17 April 2000) and discussed in greater detail within the natural environment inventories of the

Highlands (Brunton 1992a; 1992b). The study area is situated at the southern end of the Precambrian

Shield bedrock outcrop known as the Carp Ridge, which extends from Kanata northwestward to the

Ottawa River in the Galetta area. This wetland-rich landform is unique in the Region of Ottawa-

Carleton, constituting a 'island' of rugged, heavily-glaciated, rocky, Gatineau Hills-like habitat on the

otherwise ±level, sedimentary lowlands. The end result is a landscape with severely limited agricultural

potential and substantial challenges to residential/ commercial development. It has remained largely

undeveloped, constituting one of the largest areas of continuous natural landscape in the City. The more

or less original natural state coupled with a uniquely complex geology has resulted in the southern

portion of the Carp Ridge (the South March Highlands) supporting a diverse and significant natural

biodiversity including Provincially and Regionally significant features and habitats (Brunton 1992a;

1992b; 1997).

Straddling the western rural/ urban boundary, the 4-1/ 4-2 study area constitutes a small portion

of a larger NEA (B) landscape surrounded by Business Park (south and east), Agricultural Resource

(west), General Urban (east) and NEA (A) (northeast) lands (Region of Ottawa-Carleton 1999).

Virtually all of the drainage in the 4-1/ 4-2 study area is westward down the Hazeldean

Escarpment slope and into the Carp River. Only the northeastern corner of the 4-1/ 4-2 study area drains

eastward, flowing into the South Branch of Shirleys Brook. Numerous small and/ or intermittent

drainage channels occur in the many depressions and ravines occurring in this rugged landscape. The

Watts Creek watershed commence immediately east of the First Line Road ROW in the southern half of

the area and there may be some cross-over in either direction. Aquatic systems except in the severely

disturbed drains immediately south of the railway corridor at the northern end of the study area seem to

be in good condition. There was little evidence of over-nutrification or serious non-native plant

infestations in these wetlands.

ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES

As noted in Tunnacliffe in lit.(17 April 2000), most of the highland portion of the 4-1/ 4-2 study

area is forested, although a substantial area of agricultural land (pasture) occurs in the southern portion.

On-site investigations confirm that the habitats and the extend of agricultural incursion remain

substantially as previously documented, although the area of deciduous swamp forest half way along

and west of the First Line Road is more extensive than was described previously. Figure 2 (below)

 

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provides an up-dated version of a portion of the vegetation mapping included as Figure 9 in Brunton

(1992b) and Figure 8 (Brunton 1992a).The only conspicuous change along this eastern edge of the 4-1/

4-2 study area is the up-grading of power lines and poles (post- ice storm ?), with an accompanying

clearing of the ROW. Water levels substantially lower than 1992 levels were noted in the small Shield

wetlands in the area. This is believed to be indicative of the low-water conditions apparent in such

wetlands across the Region of Ottawa-Carleton in the late 1990s.

Vegetation

As noted above, field investigations during the present study confirmed the distribution and

composition of the 4-1/ 4-2 study area to be as described in the earlier South March Highlands natural

environment inventory (Brunton 1992b). In terms of the vegetation classification now employed in

southern Ontario by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (Lee et al. 1998), seven major habitats

can be described here. They, with their appropriate vegetation codes noted (in brackets), are as follows:

Habitat 1: Sugar Maple Deciduous Forest (FOD6) - ca. 45% of study area (Vegetation Types 7 and 8 of

Brunton 1992b);

- Sugar Maple dominated upland forest, particularly mature in the northern half of the study area; small

patches of Hardwood-Hemlock Mixed Forest (FOM3) occur throughout (probably reduced by selective

ogging) with inliers of swamp forest and bedrock outcrop (see below);

- most extensive vegetation type in the study area with diverse spring floristic development; relatively

undisturbed understory with few non-native plant species; good representation of breeding bird species

typical of extensive, ±mature deciduous forest (see Appendix 1);

Habitat 1: Sugar Maple Deciduous Forest (FOD6) - ca. 45% of study area (Vegetation Types 7 and 8

of Brunton 1992b);

- Sugar Maple dominated upland forest, particularly mature in the northern half of the study area; small

patches of Hardwood-Hemlock Mixed Forest (FOM3) occur throughout (probably reduced by selective

logging) with inliers of swamp forest and bedrock outcrop (see below);

- most extensive vegetation type in the study area with diverse spring floristic development; relatively

undisturbed understory with few non-native plant species; good representation of breeding bird species

typical of extensive, ±mature deciduous forest (see Appendix 1);

Habitat 2: Hardwood-Hemlock (FOM3) and Poplar-White Pine Mixed Forest (FOM5) - ca. 15% of

study area (Vegetation Type 9 of Brunton 1992b);

 

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- young deciduous (Red Maple, Sugar Maple, Trembling Aspen, White Ash) upland forest species in

complex mixture with Eastern Hemlock, White Pine and White Cedar; pure coniferous forest, swamp

forest and rock inliers occur (see below); predominantly in southern half of the study area and also south

of Richardson Side Road; relatively undisturbed understory with few non-native plant species; typical

representation of upland mixed and coniferous forest breeding birds noted (see Appendix 1);

Figure 2: vegetation types

 

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Habitat 3: Pine Coniferous Forest (FOC1) - ca. 5% of study area (Vegetation Type 10 of Brunton

1992b);

- young to mature White Pine dominated forest, commonly grading into FOM5 mixed forest on drier,

rockier sites and FOM3 forest in mesic situations; concentrated in the southern half of the study area

(including mature grove known as 'Cathedral Grove'); typical representation of upland mixed and

coniferous forest breeding bird noted (see Appendix 1);

Habitat 4: Deciduous Swamp Forest (SWD) - ca. 10% of study area (Vegetation Types 4 and 5 of

Brunton 1992b);

- young to mature Red Maple (SWD6) or Black Ash, Green Ash (SWD5) dominated wetlands with

White Elm, Yellow Birch, Balsam Fir, over organic deposits (SWD6) in bedrock depressions and

drainage channels across the study area; both standing water and ephemeral wetland areas present;

supports representative and uncommon breeding bird and herptile species (Appendix 1);

Habitat 5: Thicket Swamp (SWT2) - <5% of study area (Vegetation Type 2 of Brunton 1992b);

- small section of large willow-Red-osier Dogwood (SWT2-2, SWT2-5) thicket over mineral soil at

northeastern corner of study area; small areas of Mineral Meadow Marsh (MAM) east of the First line

ROW; low floristic and faunal diversity noted (Appendix 1);

Habitat 6: Open Rock Barren (RBO) - ca. 20% of study area (Vegetation Type 'R' of Brunton 1992b);

- dry, hot, open areas of gneissic bedrock with sparse associated vegetation along escarpment edge and

within forested uplands, with woodland and scrub 'islands' in areas of thin soil; supports Regionally

significant native vegetation but low faunal diversity (Appendix 1);

Habitat 7: Meadow & scrub (CUM, CUT) - ca. 10% of study area (Vegetation Types 'S' and 'M' of

Brunton 1992b);

- small areas of regenerating farmland along lower portions of escarpment, with largest example in

southern portion of the study area; high faunal diversity, with representative breeding birds of fields and

woodland edges (Appendix 1) but severely limited natural floristic diversity.

Flora

As noted above, the vascular flora of the various 4-1/ 4-2 study area habitats was found to be a

continuation of the flora recorded in comparable habitats across the South March Highlands (Brunton

1992a; 1992b). The extent of unfragmented habitat and relative isolation of the site has encouraged

unusually large populations of some mature deciduous forest plant species such as Wild Leek (Allium

tricoccum). One additionally Regionally significant species was found in the study area during the

 

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present investigation, that being a large population of Short-headed Sedge (Carex brevior) (see

Significant features, below).

Fauna

The breeding bird, mammal and herptile (amphibian and reptile) observations made during the

present field investigations are noted in Appendix 1. Species considered significant in the Region of

Ottawa-Carleton (cf. the preliminary lists of Brownell & Larson 1997) are also listed below.

Birds: the diversity of breeding bird species includes a number which are typical of extensively forested

areas and thus are otherwise rare in the fragmented habitat which constitute much of the forested

portions of the Region of Ottawa-Carleton. These include Scarlet Tanager, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker,

Pileated Woodpecker and Wood Thrush. Several Regionally significant species were also noted:

Red-shouldered Hawk Black-throated Blue Warbler

Winter Wren Black-throated Green Warbler

Golden-winged Warbler Pine Warbler

All of these except the Golden-winged Warbler are typical of more mature, extensive upland or swamp

forest areas (Winter Wren in the latter); they were found sparingly in such habitat at the northern end of

the 4-1/ 4-2 study area. A singing male Golden-winged Warbler was heard and observed along the

margin of the extensive Thicket Swamp habitat at the north end of the study area on 29 May 2000. This

predominantly southern species has rarely been recorded breeding within the Region of Ottawa-

Carleton, previous breeding-season reports also being from the Carp Ridge area.

Amphibians & reptiles: few herptiles were observed in the 4-1/ 4-2 study area, perhaps at least in part

due to the drought which apparently has negatively affected wetland species during the last three or four

years in the Region of Ottawa-Carleton. No salamander species were observed although potential

breeding pools were searched in mature hardwood forest habitat. Only in July were frogs noted with

frequency, these being the common Green Frog and Wood Frog.

Blanding's Turtles, considered Regionally Significant in the Region of Ottawa-Carleton in the

preliminary list of Brownell & Blaney (1997), were observed basking on a log in a small pond along the

First Line Road allowance in the Carp River watershed by the height-of-land with the Watts Creek

watershed. This ± 40 m long pond exhibited an unusual diversity of turtles, with Painted, Snapping and

Blanding's Turtles all being observed there on different occasions.

 

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Mammals: Relatively few mammal species were observed during the natural environment assessment

of the 4-1/ 4-2 study area. None are considered to be Regionally Significant (cf. preliminary list of

Brownell & Larson 1997). White-tailed Deer are common here, as they have been throughout the

western portion of the Region of Ottawa-Carleton since the early to mid 1990s (Broadfoot and Voigt

2000).

ECOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS

The contribution of the 4-1/ 4-2 study area to the ecological integrity of the larger NEA area within

which it is contained is an important elements of its overall significance and conservation value. The

following include the ecological attributes reviewed in assessing candidate NESS areas in this area of

the Region of Ottawa-Carleton 1997; Brunton 1997).

Representation and condition: being virtually continuous natural woodland, particularly one with a

diversity of upland and wetland habitats with little non-native intrusion, the study area contains an

extensive complex of common and rare habitats demonstrating a high degree of ecological integrity.

Over 80% of the study area supports Regionally rare vegetation types (Geomatics International 1993)

and represents a continuation of similar vegetation types in the NEA (B) area to the north and the NEA

(A) area to the east. As noted above, a number of the nesting bird species noted within the 4-1/ 4-2 study

area are successful breeders only in extensive woodlands. Fragmentation is rare here, with the First Line

Road ROW providing the only physical interruption crossing the length of the site. Agricultural

development intrudes from the west in some sections.

Natural biodiversity: the 4-1/ 4-2 study area is known to support a rich diversity of native plant and

animal species typical of superior examples of the habitats represented here (Brunton 1992b; 1997).

None of the habitats and only a few particular species, however, are unique to this area of the South

March Highlands (see Special features, below)

Hydrological values: The First Line Road ROW virtually forms the height of land between the Watts

Creek and Carp River watersheds, with drainage westward to the river being through a myriad of

ephemeral ponds, deciduous swamps and tiny drains. The northern half of the 4-1/ 4-2 study area with

deeper soils and more extensive water-filled depressions contributes most of the water retention and

regulatory function of the area.

Special features: a substantial number of Regionally significant plant and animal species are

documented from the habitats noted in the 4-1/ 4-2 study area, the mature upland deciduous forest

habitat in the northern half of the study area contributing the greatest number of these (Brunton 1992b).

 

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Few of these are unique to the 4-1/ 4-2 study area in the South March Highlands. The largest Region of

Ottawa-Carleton population of the Regionally Rare Short-headed Sedge (Carex brevior) found during

the present inventory on the bedrock outcrops south of the Richardson Side Road, however, is one such

locally unique feature. Another was an apparently territorial and possibly breeding Regionally Rare

Golden-winged Warbler noted at the edge of the large thicket swamp at the north end of the study area.

Amongst the otherwise typical herptile species, a Regionally uncommon Blandings Turtle was noted in

a small woodland pond along the First Line Road adjacent to the Watts Creek watershed. This species

has also been observed both east and north of the study area in the South March Highlands (Brunton

1992a; 1992b).

Linkages: The western half of the study area forms a direct and continuous link with identical significant

habitat to the north. The southern half of the study area, however, protrudes into developed or slated-fordevelopment

lands and will be impacted on the west, south and east by agricultural and urban

development.

NATURAL ENVIRONMENT SIGNIFICANCE WITHIN THE SOUTH MARCH HIGHLANDS

The extensive escarpment and upland forest landscape in the northern half of the 4-1/ 4-2 study area

identified as areas 3 and 4 in Tunnacliffe in lit.(17 April 2000) has been documented as being of

Regional and Provincial ecological significance (Brunton 1992b). That assessment was supported by

observations made during the present investigation. As noted above, few of the natural environment

assets of the 4-1/ 4-2 study area are unique to the area. The rich natural biodiversity of the area, and of

adjacent natural lands to the east and north, is directly related to the relatively high state of ecological

integrity in this area. That, in turn, is directly related to the contribution each portion of the Highlands

makes to each other - particularly to adjacent lands.

Identification and designation of areas of significant vegetation as being of conservation or

preservation priority is of only of academic interest if conditions are not in place to ensure that such

areas/ features/ values are naturally sustainable over the long term. The self-sustainability of an area is

dependent on characteristics such as natural diversity, hydrological condition and ecological integrity. A

major consideration regarding the sustainability of significant natural environment values within the 4-

1/ 4-2 study area, then, is the potential impact of development options on the linkage of this area with

other significant natural landscapes to the north and east. The effective ecological communication

between such areas is necessary for the movement of plant and animal species between them.

The 4-1/ 4-2 study area provides considerable ecological significance within the NEA (B) of which

it is a part (Brunton 1997), and the South March Highlands as a whole (Brunton 1992). Virtually all of

 

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these floristic, faunal, habitat and ecological function values are replicated elsewhere in South March

Highlands NEA lands. While reduction of the size of the NEA in the 4-1/ 4-2 study area would reduce

the quantity of protected ecological assets, its ecological diversity would remain essentially unchanged.

Boundaries of representative area:

As noted above, few natural environment assets in the study area are unique. While a substantial

block of this area would have to be maintained intact if significant species, populations and functions

are to prevail, not all of the 4-1/ 4-2 study area is essential in that regard. Protection of the more

extensive escarpment edge and mature Sugar Maple dominated upland of the northern half will contain

the majority of significant values and contributions of the study area. This reduced area would align

along it's southern border with the NEA (A) land to the east (Figure 3). With the development of the

General Urban lands to the east of the First Line Road allowance the ecological integrity of the southern

half of the 4-1/ 4-2 study area will be impacted - possibly severely - by fragmentation and edge effect.

As noted above, however, the vegetation types and biodiversity assets of the southern half contribute

less to the conservation value of the larger NEA area than those of the northern portion. The ecological

assets of the southern half also largely represented in the southeastern section of the NEA (B) area

immediately west of the Second Line Road.

MITIGATION OF LOSS OF NEA SIGNIFICANCE

Although ecological diversity will not be appreciably lessened by an NEA size reduction,

mitigation will be required if compensation for the resulting reduction in overall ecological value is to

be effective. The preferred route for mitigating the loss of such land would be the addition of

comparable quality natural lands elsewhere to the NEA. With additional natural lands unavailable to the

south or west, such compensation appears to be possible only to the east towards the 'Trillium Woods'

NEA(A) area along Goulbourn Forced Road. Since adjacent development will eventually isolate this

important site, the addition of protected land here would also secure an important ecological linkage

between the two NEAs.

Mitigation of a reduction in NEA area within the 4-1/ 4-2 study area could include:

1) up-grading the retained portion from NEA(B) to NEA(A) in keeping with the adjacent zoning

to the east and to better reflect its ecological significance;

 

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2) replacing lost NEA features and securing future ecological linkage functions between the

'Trillium Woods' NEA(A) and remaining NEA lands to the west through the addition of NEA

lands between them (i.e. north of the Trillium Woods east of the Second Line Road ROW and/

or west of the Trillium Woods south of the new Terry Fox Drive ROW);

3) closing Goulbourn Forced Road to vehicle traffic through the Trillium Woods NEA(A) and

encouraging natural revegetation of the roadbed;

4) relocating the transmission line from the First Line Road ROW to the Terry Fox Drive ROW

and permitting natural revegetation along the First Line Road ROW;

5) providing protection for Regionally significant floristic values found in Bedrock Barrens

habitat south and west of the communications tower south of Richardson Side Road.

TERRY FOX DRIVE MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Construction of Terry Fox Drive along route 4-1 will involve a crossing of the Hazeldean

Escarpment. This will require substantial construction activity involving such activities are rock blasting

and earthfill. While the upland nature of much of this proposed roadway corridor reduces the threat to

drainage systems, the finished roadway would constitute:

1) a significant impediment to wildlife movement along the Hazeldean Escarpment, raising public

safety as well as wildlife mortality issues, and

2) increased fragmentation of the habitat.

Wildlife corridor impacts can be reduced by bridging rather than filling some steep/ deep sections

of the roadway at the escarpment crossing, permitting at least small mammals and herptiles to cross in

safety beneath the roadway. The fragmentation issue can be mitigated by maintaining the narrowest

possible roadway ROW (excluding paved shoulders or a wide central median, for example) and by

encouraging natural revegetation of roadway margins. Pre-construction salvage of on-site, native trees

and shrubs for later transplantation along the corridor can also reduce the advance of non-native weeds

which may degrade native biodiversity in adjacent forested areas.

 

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Figure 3: proposed NEA reconfiguration

 

References

Broadfoot, J.D. and D.R. Voigt. 2000. The status of deer herds in the western Greenbelt of the

National Capital and recommendations for their management. [Unpublished report] National Capital

Commission, Ottawa.

Brownell, V. and C.S. Blaney. 1995. An evaluation framework for natural areas in the Regional

Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton, volume 2: Technical appendices. Planning and Property Services

Department Report 28-07, Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton, Ottawa.

 

Brunton Consulting Services, Ottawa, Ontario Page 15

 

Ecological implications of the Terry Fox Drive alignment Appendix 1: fauna Page 16

Brunton, D. F. 1992a. Natural Environment Inventory of the Kanata Lakes Study Area, Kanata,

Ontario. [Report for Genstar Corp., Ottawa/ City of Kanata, Kanata], Daniel Brunton Consulting

Services, Ottawa.

Brunton, D. F. 1992b. South March Highlands Study Area: Natural Environment Assessment. [Report

for City of Kanata, Kanata], Daniel Brunton Consulting Services, Ottawa.

Brunton, D.F. 1997. Summary Natural Area reports for Natural Areas west of the Rideau River (500

series). Planning and Development Approvals Department Report 28-08d, Regional Municipality of

Ottawa-Carleton, Ottawa.

Brunton, D. F. 2000. Natural environment implications of the Terry Fox Drive alignment in the South

March Highlands, Kanata. [draft] [Unpublished report for Planning and Development Approvals

Branch, Region of Ottawa-Carleton], Daniel Brunton Consulting Services, Ottawa.

Cadman, M.D., P. F. Eagles and F. M. Helleiner (Compilers). 1987. Atlas of the Breeding Birds of

Ontario. University of Waterloo Press, Waterloo.

Geomatics International Inc. 1995. Natural Environment Systems Strategy for the Regional

Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton: Stage 1, Regional information base and ecological profile. Planning

and Property Department Report 28-02, Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton, Ottawa.

Lee, H., W. Bakowsky, J. Riley, J. Bowes, M. Puddister, P. Uhlig and S. McMurry. 1998.

Ecological land classification for southern Ontario: first approximation and its application. SCSS Field

Guide FG-02, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resource, North Bay.

Ontario Field Ornitholgists. 1997. Field checklist of Ontario birds. Federation of Ontario Naturalists,

Toronto.

Region of Ottawa-Carleton. 1997. Candidate natural area evaluation. Planning and Development

Approvals Branch Report 28-08, Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton, Ottawa.

Region of Ottawa-Carleton. 1999. Official Plan, Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton;

consolidation - April 1999. Report 6-58, Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton, Ottawa.

Tunnacliffe, N., in lit. 17 April 2000. Terry Fox Drive environmental assessment study - planning and

development implications (File 48-95-0104); report to Transportation Committee, Region of Ottawa-

Carleton, Ottawa.

 

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Appendix 1 (Brunton 2000): Fauna observed in the 4-1/ 4-2 study

area

1) BREEDING BIRDS

The following lists the breeding status of bird species observed between 18 April and 4 July 2000 in

the 4-1/ 4-2 study area. Breeding status was determined by the use of Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas

criteria (Cadman et al., 1987) as follows:

Possible breeding: • species observed in its breeding season in suitable nesting habitat.

• single male(s) present or call heard in suitable nesting habitat in breeding

season.

Probable breeding: • pair observed in suitable nesting habitat in breeding season.

• territorial behaviour observed on at least two days, a week or more apart, at

the same site.

• courtship display, including copulation or courtship feeding.

• visiting probable nest site.

• agitated behaviour of an adult.

• nest building or excavation of a nest hole.

Confirmed breeding: • distraction display or injury feigning.

• used nest or egg shells found.

• recently fledged or downy young found.

• adults carrying faecal sacs or food for young.

• adults leaving or entering apparently occupied nests.

• nest with young or eggs found.

The listing order and nomenclature follows standard Ontario checklist format (Ontario Field

Ornithologists 1997). Significant breeding species in the former Region of Ottawa-Carleton are

determined from the preliminary list in Brownell & Larson (1997). The names of these species are noted

in bold and CAPITALS. If such species were noted in the study area but not as breeding species (e.g.

flying over and not utilizing any study area habitat), however, their name is not bolded and no further

discussion of their status occurs.

 

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Status codes employed for bird species observed during the 4-1/ 4-2 study area are as follows:

M migrant

* possible breeding species

. probable breeding species

. confirmed breeding species

X flying over

Species Young/

submature

upland

forest

Mature

upland

forest

Upland

scrub &

meadow

Swamp

forest

Thicket

swamp

No habitat

use

(flying over)

Great Blue Heron X

TURKEY VULTURE X

CANADA GOOSE X

Wood Duck *

American Black Duck X

Mallard X

RED-SHOULDERED

HAWK

*

Red-tailed Hawk . *

American Kestrel *

Ruffed Grouse .

Killdeer

American Woodcock *

Ring-billed Gull X

Rock Dove X

Mourning Dove .

Black-billed Cuckoo *

Ruby-throated

Hummingbird

*

Belted Kingfisher X

Yellow-bellied

Sapsucker

. .

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Species Young/

submature

upland

forest

Mature

upland

forest

Upland

scrub &

meadow

Swamp

forest

Thicket

swamp

No habitat

use

(flying over)

Downy Woodpecker . .

Hairy Woodpecker *

Northern Flicker . .

Pileated Woodpecker .

Eastern Wood Pewee . .

Alder Flycatcher .

Least Flycatcher . . .

Eastern Phoebe *

Great Crested Flycatcher . *

Eastern Kingbird *

Tree Swallow . .

Barn Swallow *

Blue Jay . * *

American Crow . *

COMMON RAVEN X

Black-capped Chickadee . . . .

White-breasted Nuthatch * .

House Wren .

WINTER WREN .

Veery .

Wood Thrush .

American Robin . . . .

Gray Catbird . .

Brown Thrasher .

Cedar Waxwing . .

European Starling . .

Red-eyed Vireo . .

 

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Species Young/

submature

Mature

upland

Upland

scrub &

Swamp

forest

Thicket

swamp

No habitat

use

upland

forest

forest meadow (flying over)

GOLDEN-WINGED

WARBLER

.

Nashville Warbler .

Yellow Warbler . .

Chestnut-sided Warbler . *

Magnolia Warbler M

BLACK-THROATED BLUE

WARBLER

*

BLACK-THROATED

GREEN WARBLER

.

PINE WARBLER .

Blackpoll Warbler M M M

Black & White Warbler * *

American Redstart . .

Ovenbird . .

Northern Waterthrush .

Mourning Warbler *

Common Yellowthroat . .

Scarlet Tanager .

Rose-breasted Grosbeak . .

Chipping Sparrow .

Song Sparrow . . .

Swamp Sparrow .

White-throated Sparrow .

Bobolink *

Red-winged Blackbird * . .

Common Grackle * .

Brown-headed Cowbird . . .

 

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Special Study Area NEA boundary

 

Baltimore Oriole

Purple Finch *

American Goldfinch . .

EVENING GROSBEAK *

2) AMPHIBIANS & REPTILES

Few amphibian and reptile species were observed in the 4-1/ 4-2 study area. Observations

are listed below, with the names of significance species (cf. preliminary list of Brownell &

Larson 1997) denoted with bold and CAPITALS.

salamanders none observed despite searching in April and May (for Blue-spotted

Salamander, Red-backed Salamander in particular); suitable breeding

pool habitat in mature hardwood forest at the north end of the 4-1/ 4-2

study area searched 29 May.

American Toad rare - one noted at wetland edge.

Bullfrog rare - two observed in Blanding's Turtle pond (see below).

Gray Tree Frog heard uncommonly in upland deciduous forest habitat, particularly

mature forest habitat.

Green Frog common in woodland pools along the First line Road allowance in May;

uncommon by mid summer.

Wood Frog recently hatched young observed in pools in mature hardwood forest

habitat in the northern portion of the 4-1/ 4-2 study area.

Leopard Frog rarely observed along wetland edges in later summer.

BLANDINGS TURTLE 2 large (7+ inches) animals sunning on a log in a woodland pool at 31

G/5 262195 along the First line Road allowance on 29 May; not

observed subsequently.

Painted Turtle observed rare in woodland pools along the First line Road allowance.

Snapping Turtle one large individual observed 4 July in the Blanding's Turtle pool

(above).

 

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3) MAMMALS

The relatively few mammals species noted during vegetation, floristic and breeding bird

studies are listed below.

Snowshoe Hare droppings noted regularly throughout woodlands.

Meadow Vole tunnels observed in open meadows.

Eastern Chipmunk common in woodlands.

Woodchuck burrows encountered in open areas and along woodland edges.

Beaver active dams maintained along several drainage channels.

Red Squirrel uncommon in woodlands, particularly in association with coniferous

forest.

White-tailed Deer common throughout; evidence of winter concentrations along bare rock

areas near coniferous cover is conspicuous immediately north of

Richardson Side Road; tracks, trails, pellet groups and browse are

evident throughout.

Striped Skunk tracks noted along wetland edges.

Porcupine animals or evidence of feeding noted rarely.

Raccoon tracks noted along wetland edges; recently born young observed south

of Richardson Side Road.

Red Fox tracks observed near Richardson Side Road.

Coyote droppings noted south of Richardson Side Road; reported to be common

in and about the study area (fide L. Richardson).

 

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Appendix 2:

Native vascular plants of the

Special Study Area

 

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Special StudyArea vascular flora

Data for the following list of native vascular plants were primarily derived from existing

documentation (Brunton 1992a; Brunton 1992b) as well as from field observations on 4 June

2004 and 9 June 2004 and from miscellaneous 1992 - 2003 collections documented in the

herbarium of D. F. Brunton.

The species are listed alphabetically by genus. Regional status (abundance or rarity in the

City of Ottawa) is taken from the draft annotated list of the vascular flora of Ottawa (Brunton, in

lit.). The Co-efficient of Conservation rating for each species is taken from Oldham et al. (1995).

Species Sites/ status in Ottawa Co-efficient of

Conservation

Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. Common 5

Acer rubrum L. Common 4

Acer saccharinum L. Common 5

Acer saccharum Marsh. Common 4

Achillea millefolium L. Common 0

Actaea pachypoda Ell. Common 5

Actaea rubra (Ait.) Willd. Common 5

Adiantum pedatum L. Uncommon 7

Ageratina altissima (L.) King & Robins.

( Eupatorium rugosum Houtt.)

Common 5

Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr. Common 2

Agrostis scabra Willd. Uncommon 6

Agrostis stolonifera L.

( A. alba L.; A. palustris Huds.)

Common 0

Alisma triviale Pursh Common 3

Allium tricoccum Ait. Uncommon 7

Alnus incana (L.) Moench ssp. rugosa (Duroi) Clausen

( A. rugosa (Du Roi) Spreng.)

Common 6

Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Common 0

Amelanchier arborea (Michx. f.) Fern. ssp. laevis

(Wieg.) McKay

( A. laevis Wieg.)

Common 5

Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.) Fern. Common 4

Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) Benth. & Hook. Common 3

 

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Species Sites/ status in Ottawa Co-efficient of

Conservation

Anemone acutiloba (DC) Lawson

( Hepatica acutiloba DC)

Common 6

Anemone canadensis L. Common 3

Anemone virginiana L. (s.l.)

(incl. A. riparia auct., non Fern.; A. virginica L. var. cylindroidea

Boivin) )

Common 4

Antennaria howellii E. Greene ssp. canadensis

(E.Greene) Bayer

( A. canadensis E. Greene)

Uncommon 2

Apocynum androsaemifolium L. Common 3

Aquilegia canadensis L. Common 5

Aralia nudicaulis L. Common 4

Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott Common 5

Asarum canadense L. Common 6

Asclepias incarnata L. Common 6

Asclepias syriaca L. Common 0

Aster cordifolius L.

( Symphyotrichum cordifolium (L.) Nesom.)

Common 5

Aster lanceolatus Willd. (s.str.)

( A. simplex Willd.; Symphyotrichum lanceolatum (Willd.) Nesom.)

Common 3

Aster macrophyllus L.

( Eurybia macrophylla (L.) Cass.)

Common 5

Aster novae-angliae L..

( Virgulus novae-angliae (L.) Rev. & Keen)

Common 2

Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth var. angustum (Willd.)

Lawson

Common 4

Betula alleghaniensis Britt. Common 6

Betula papyrifera Marsh. Common 2

Bidens cernuus L. Common 2

Bidens frondosus L. Common 3

Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw. Uncommon 4

Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw. Common 5

Brachyelytrum erectum (Schreb. ex Sprengel) Beauv.

var. glabratum (Vasey ex. Millsp.) Koyama & Kowano

Uncommon [16] 7

Caltha palustris L. Common 8

Campanula rotundifolia L. Common 7

Cardamine diphylla (Michx.) Wood

( Dentaria diphylla Michx.)

Uncommon 7

 

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Species Sites/ status in Ottawa Co-efficient of

Conservation

Carex albursina Sheld. Uncommon [15] 7

Carex arctata Boott Common 5

Carex bebbii (Bailey) Fern. Common 3

Carex blanda Dew. Common 3

Carex bromoides Willd. Common 7

Carex cephaloidea (Dew.) Dew. Uncommon [13] 6

Carex communis Bailey Common 6

Carex crinita Lam. Common 6

Carex deweyana Schw. Common 6

Carex gracillima Schw. Common 4

Carex granularis Willd. Common 3

Carex hirtifolia Mack. Uncommon [15] 5

Carex intumescens Rudge Common 6

Carex peckii Howe Common 6

Carex pedunculata Willd. Common 5

Carex plantaginea Lam. Uncommon 7

Carex radiata (Wahl.) Small

( C. rosea, auct., non Willd.)

Common 4

Carex rosea Schkuhr ex Willd.

( C. convoluta Mack.)

Common 5

Carex scoparia Willd. RS (7*): Carp Ridge*; South March

Highlands; Whelan Park; Mer Bleue CA,

South Gloucester; Mud Pond; Town Centre

Woods*.

5

Carex sparganioides Willd. Uncommon [11] 5

Carex sprengelii Dew. ex Sprengel Common 6

Carex tenera Dew. Common 4

Carex tuckermanii Boott ex Dew. Common 7

Carex vulpinoidea Michx. Common 3

Carpinus caroliniana Walt. Common (local) 6

Carya cordiformis (Wang) K. Koch Common (local) 6

Caulophyllum giganteum (Farw.) Loc. & Black.

( C. thalictroides var. giganteum Farw.)

Common 6

 

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Species Sites/ status in Ottawa Co-efficient of

Conservation

Celastrus scandens L. Common 3

Chelone glabra L. Uncommon 7

Chenopodium simplex (Torr.) Raf.

( = C. gigantospermum Aellen; C. hybridum auct., non L.)

Common 0

Cicuta bulbifera L. Common 5

Circaea lutetiana L. ssp. canadensis (L.) Asch. &

Magnus

Common 3

Claytonia caroliniana Michx. Common 7

Clematis virginiana L. Common 5

Clintonia borealis (Ait.) Raf. Common 7

Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. Common 0

Cornus alternifolia L.f. Common 6

Cornus sericea L.

( C. stolonifera Michx.)

Common 2

Corydalis sempervirens (L.) Pers. Common 7

Corylus cornuta Marsh. Common 5

Crataegus chrysocarpa Ashe (s.str.)

(incl. C. aboriginum Sarg)

Common 4

Cystopteris bulbifera (L.) Bernh. Common 5

Cystopteris tenuis (Michx.) Desv.

( C. fragilis (L.) Bernh. var. mackayii Lawson)

Common 6

Danthonia spicata (L.) Beauv. ex R. & S. Common 5

Dicentra canadensis (Goldie) Walp. Common 7

Dicentra cucullaria (L.) Bernh. Common 6

Diphasiastrum digitatum (A. Br.) Holub

( Lycopodium digitatum A. Br.; L. flabelliforme (Fern.) Blanch.)

Common 5

Dirca palustris L. Common (local) 7

Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill.) Fuchs

( D. spinulosa (Muell.) Watt)

Common 5

Dryopteris cristata (L.) A. Gray Uncommon 7

Dryopteris intermedia (Muhl.) A. Gray Common 5

Dryopteris marginalis (L.) A. Gray Common 5

Echinochloa wiegandii (Fassett) McNeill & Dore

( E. pungens (Poir.) Fass. var. wiegandii Fass.)

Common 4

Eleocharis acicularis (L.) R.& S. Common 5

 

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Species Sites/ status in Ottawa Co-efficient of

Conservation

Eleocharis obtusa (Willd.) Schultes Common 5

Eleocharis palustris (L.) R.& S.

(incl. E. smallii Britt.)

Common 6

Elodea canadensis Michx. Common 4

Elymus hystrix L.

( Hystrix patula Moench)

Uncommon 5

Epifagus virginiana (L.) Bart. Common 6

Epilobium angustifolium L. Common 3

Epilobium ciliatum Raf. (s.str.)

( E. adenocaulon Haussk.; E. glandulosum, auct.)

Common 3

Equisetum arvense L. Common 0

Equisetum hyemale L. Common 2

Equisetum sylvaticum L. Common 7

Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf. Uncommon 2

Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. Common 0

Erigeron philadelphicus L. Common 1

Erigeron strigosus Muhl. Common 0

Erythronium americanum Ker. Common 5

Eupatorium maculatum L. Common 3

Eupatorium perfoliatum L. Common 2

Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt.

( Solidago graminifolia (L.) Salisb.)

Common 2

Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. Common 6

Fallopia cilinodis (Michx.) Holub

( Polygonum cilinode Michx.)

Common 2

Fragaria virginiana Duchesne Common 2

Fraxinus americana L. Common 4

Fraxinus nigra Marsh. Common 7

Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. Common 3

Galium aparine L. Uncommon [11] 4

Galium circaezans Michx.

(incl. G. lanceolatum Torr.)

Uncommon [17] 7

Galium palustre L. Common 5

Galium triflorum Michx. Common 4

 

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Species Sites/ status in Ottawa Co-efficient of

Conservation

Gaultheria procumbens L. Common 6

Geranium bicknellii Britt. Uncommon [12] 5

Geum aleppicum Jacq. Common 2

Geum canadense Jacq. Common 3

Glyceria striata (Lam.) A. Hitchc. Common 3

Gymnocarpium dryopteris (L.) Newm. Common 7

Hackelia virginiana (L.) Johnst. Uncommon [20] 5

Huperzia lucidula (Michx.) Trev.

( Lycopodium lucidulum Michx.)

Common 7

Hydrophyllum virginianum L. Common 6

Ilex verticillata (L.) A. Gray Common 5

Impatiens capensis Meerb. Common 4

Iris versicolor L. Common 5

Juglans cinerea L. Common 6

Juncus bufonius L. Common 1

Juncus effusus L. (s.str.) Common 4

Juncus tenuis Willd. Common 0

Juniperus communis L. Common 4

Laportea canadensis (L.) Wedd. Common 6

Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw. Common 3

Lemna minor L. Common 2

Lobelia inflata L. Common 3

Lonicera canadensis Bart. ex Marsh. Common 6

Lonicera dioica L. Uncommon 5

Luzula acuminata Raf. RS (5+): South March Highlands (3+

populations); Loggers Way Woods; Carp

Hills; French Hill Creek.

6

Lycopodium clavatum L. Common 6

Lycopodium dendroideum Michx. Common 7

Lycopus americanus Muhl. Common 4

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Species Sites/ status in Ottawa Co-efficient of

Conservation

Lycopus uniflorus Michx. Common 5

Lysimachia terrestris (L.) BSP. Common 6

Maianthemum canadense Desf. (s.str.) Common 5

Maianthemum racemosum (L.) Link

( Smilacina racemosa (L.) Desf.)

Common 4

Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Todaro Common 5

Medeola virginiana L. Common (local) 7

Mimulus ringens L. Common 6

Mitella diphylla L. Common 5

Moehringia lateriflora (L.) Fenzl

( Arenaria lateriflora L.)

RS (10+): Shirleys Bay (Watts Creek);

Crystal Bay (Beatty Point); Britannia CA;

Champlain Bridge ESA; 3 km NE of

Sarsfield; Stony Swamp CA; Greens Creek

CA (several); Long Swamp; Carlsbad Springs

SW; South Gloucester.

7

Monotropa uniflora L. Common 6

Muhlenbergia mexicana (L.) Trin. Common 1

Oenothera biennis L. Common ? [taxonomic problem] 0

Onoclea sensibilis L. Common 4

Oryzopsis asperifolia Michx. Common 6

Oryzopsis racemosa (Sm.) Ricker ex Hitchc. Uncommon [17] 7

Osmorhiza claytonii (Michx.) Clarke Common 5

Osmunda cinnamomea L. Common 7

Osmunda regalis L. Common 7

Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch Common 4

Oxalis stricta L.

( O. europea Jord.; O. fontana Bunge)

Common 0

Panicum acuminatum Sw. Ell. var. fasciculatum (Torr.)

Lelong

( P. lanuginosum Ell. var. fasciculatum Fern.)

Common 2

Panicum capillare L. Common 0

Panicum linearifolium Scribn. Common (local) 8

Panicum philadelphicum Bernh. ex Trin. Uncommon (locally abundant) 8

Parthenocissus vitacea (Knerr) Hitchc. Common 3

 

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Species Sites/ status in Ottawa Co-efficient of

Conservation

Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Opiz

( Polygonum hydropiper L.)

Common 4

Persicaria pensylvanica (L.) J. K. Small

( Polygonum pensylvanicum L.)

Common 3

Phegopteris connectilis (Michx.) Watt Common (local) 8

Phryma leptostachya L. Uncommon 6

Picea glauca (Moench) Voss Common 6

Pinus strobus L. Common 4

Plantago rugelii Ducne. Common 1

Poa saltuensis Fern. & Wieg. RS (6): South March Highlands; Buchans

Bay W; Stony Swamp CA; Carlsbad Springs

SW; South Gloucester; DND Woods.

7

Polygonatum pubescens (Willd.) Pursh Common 5

Polypodium virginianum L. Common 6

Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott Uncommon 5

Populus balsamifera L. Common 4

Populus grandidentata Michx. Common 5

Populus tremuloides Michx. Common 2

Prenanthes altissima L. Common 5

Prunus serotina Ehrh. Common 3

Prunus virginiana L. Common 2

Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var. latiusculum (Desv.)

Underw.

Common 2

Pyrola elliptica Nutt. Common 5

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Common 5

Quercus rubra L. Common 6

Ranunculus abortivus L. Common 2

Ranunculus recurvatus Poir. Uncommon 4

Rhus hirta (L.) Sudworth

( R. typhina L.)

Common 1

Ribes cynosbati L. Common 4

Ribes glandulosum Grauer Common 6

Rorippa palustris (L.) Bess. ssp. fernaldiana (Butt. &

Abbe) Jonsell

Common 3

 

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Species Sites/ status in Ottawa Co-efficient of

Conservation

Rubus allegheniensis Porter Common 2

Rubus odoratus L. Common 3

Rubus pubescens Raf. Common 4

Rubus strigosus Michx.

( R. idaeus L. var. strigosus (Michx.) Max.)

Common 0

Rudbeckia hirta L. Common 0

Sagittaria latifolia Willd. Common 4

Salix bebbiana Sarg. Common 4

Salix lucida Muhl. Common 5

Salix petiolaris Sm. Common 3

Sambucus racemosa L. ssp. pubens (Michx.) House

( S. pubens Michx.)

Common 5

Sanguinaria canadensis L. Common 5

Sanicula marilandica L. Common 5

Saxifraga virginiensis Michx. Common 6

Schizachne purpurascens (Torr.) Swallen Common 6

Scirpus atrovirens Willd. Common 3

Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth

( S. atrocinctus Fern.)

Common 4

Scirpus microcarpus Presl.

( S. rubrotinctus Fern.)

Uncommon 4

Scutellaria galericulata L. Common 6

Scutellaria lateriflora L. Common 5

Senecio pauperculus Muhl. Common 7

Sisyrinchium montanum Greene Common 4

Sium suave Walt. Common 4

Solanum ptycanthum Dunal

( S. americanum, auct.)

Common 3

Solidago altissima L.

( S. canadensis L. var. scabra (Muhl.) T. & G.)

Common 1

Solidago caesia L. Uncommon 5

Solidago canadensis L. Common 1

Solidago flexicaulis L. Uncommon 6

Solidago hispida Muhl.

( S. bicolor L. var. concolor T. & G.)

Uncommon 7

 

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Species Sites/ status in Ottawa Co-efficient of

Conservation

Solidago juncea Ait. Common 3

Solidago nemoralis Ait. Common 2

Solidago rugosa Mill. Common 4

Sparganium emersum Rehm.

( S. chlorocarpum Rydb.)

Common 5

Spiraea alba Du Roi (s.str.) Common 3

Stellaria longifolia Muhl. RS (4): Mer Bleue CA; Albion Weltand;

South Gloucester, South March Highlands.

2

Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake Uncommon (locally abundant) 7

Taxus canadensis Marsh. Common 7

Thalictrum dioicum L. Common 5

Thelypteris palustris (Salisb.) Schott Common 5

Tiarella cordifolia L. Common 6

Tilia americana L. Common 4

Toxicodendron rydbergii (Rydb.) Greene

( Rhus radicans L. var. rydbergii (Sm.) McNeill)

Common 0

Trientalis borealis Raf. Common 6

Trillium erectum L. Common 6

Trillium grandiflorum (Michx.) Salisb. Common 5

Triosteum aurantiacum Bickn. (s.str.)

( T. perfoliatum L. var. aurantiacum (Bickn.) Wieg.)

Uncommon 7

Tsuga canadensis L. Common 7

Typha latifolia L. Common 3

Ulmus americana L. Common 3

Urtica dioica L. ssp. gracilis (Ait.) Selander Common 2

Uvularia grandiflora Sm. Common (local) 6

Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. Common 6

Vaccinium myrtilloides Michx. Common 7

Verbena hastata L. Common 4

Verbena urticifolia L. Uncommon [13] 4

Veronica peregrina L. ssp. xalapensis (Kunth) Penn. Uncommon [15] 7

Viburnum nudum L. var. cassinoides (L.) Torr. & Gray

( V. cassinoides L.)

Uncommon 7

 

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Species Sites/ status in Ottawa Co-efficient of

Conservation

Viola canadensis L. Common (local) 6

Viola macloskeyi Lloyd ssp. pallens (Banks) Baker Common 6

Viola pubescens Ait.

(incl. V. eriocarpa Schwein.)

Common 5

Viola sororia Willd. (s.str.)

( = V. septentionalis, auct.)

Common 4

Waldsteinia fragarioides (Michx.) Tratt. Common 5

Woodsia ilvensis (L.) R. Br. RS (2+): Stony Swamp CA (2 populations);

South March Highlands (3+ populations).

8

CC Aggregate: 1197

Total Species Regionally Significant

(incl. Uncommon)

High CC (>6) Average

Co. of Cons.

EI rating

268 18 39 4.46 High

 

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Appendix 3:

NEA boundary definition field notes

(4 June 2004)

 

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NEA boundary definition field notes (4 June 2004)

(field survey: D. Brunton, S. Murphy)

- commencing immediately west of First Line ROW at southeast edge of ‘Compensation Lands’

(CL) at northeast corner of Richardson’s pasture;

- boundary at corner of First Line ROW at southeast edge of CL = MK 77 [45o 19.362' N 75o

56.366' W [NAD 84]];

following fence-line southwestward along edge of forest [upslope of CL marking tape] to ensure

continuous natural habitat captured;

Richardson pasture at south side of Compensation Lands (4 June 2004)

- no-net-loss of significant features/ functions buffer extends outwards from edge of continuous

forest; not a geotechnical buffer (e.g. unstable slopes) but an ecological buffer (transition zone);

- development or activities within buffer acceptable if not compromising significant features/

functions of NEA;

- 50 m buffer appropriate for boundary section adjacent PSW, reflecting extra level of ecological

sensitivity of South March Highlands landscapes;

- 50 m ‘adjacent lands" area recommended by OPPS for adjacent lands by PS woodlands and

wildlife habitat; 50 m no-net-impact adjacent lands zone minimum required to satisfy ecological

and policy conservation requirements.

- exceptionally large Butternut (Juglans cinerea) with 86 cm dbh at edge of outcrop in pasture at

45o 19.291' N 75o 56.402' W [NAD 84];

 

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Exceptionally large Butternut tree at north end of Richardson’s pasture (4 June 2004)

- NEA border at Richardson cattle coral: MK 78 [45o 19.332' N 75o 56.422' W [NAD 84]]; follows edge

of woods by PSW cliff; marked border dips towards wetland edge (excluding severely disturbed,

discontinuous habitat damaged by intensive grazing; non-native veg predominates)

- to large White Pines [45o 19.275' N 75o 56.524' W [NAD 84]]; habitat to south transformed from

natural condition by severe grazing;

- to informal farm debris dump [45o 19.265' N 75o 56.549' W [NAD 84]]; lines dips through old cart

track under scattered White Cedar and over earth-fill to end of edge by north track across front

of PSW (across outlet);

- by track at ca. Mid-point across PSW (under Silver Maple) [45o 19.239' N 75o 56.687' W [NAD 84]];

track through wetland and forms western edge of continuous Silver Maple swamp forest;

superior example of Silver Maple swamp forest, though with an abundance of Canary-grass

(Phalaris arundinacea) below canopy - still predominantly natural;

 

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west edge of Compensation Lands swamp forest (4 June 2004)

- northwest corner of CL [45o 19.327' N 75o 56.787' W [NAD 84]]; at entrance to Northern Field

(immediately north of PSW and CL);

- line crosses disturbed wetland at corner but follows (northeastward along forest edge, following

natural (south) side of old track and excluding planted White Pine; closely follows CL flagging

here;

- back southeast of North Field [45o 19.419' N 75o 56.699' W [NAD 84]] at edge of outcrop and

continuous natural forest to east;

North Field overwhelmingly non-native, dominated by dense Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa

pratensis) with Cinquefoil (Potentilla argentea), Curled Dock (Rumex crispus) in thin soil over

granitic bedrock (outcropping); heavily pastured and almost totally transformed from a natural

condition;

- NEA boundary runs northward across back (east end) of North Field outcrop along edge of

continuous natural forest to Lot 8 southern fenceline;

- Mk 82 [lat & long omitted here ] - northeast corner of North Field at Lot 8 southern fenceline;

- follows Lot 8 southern fenceline southwestward omitted severely disturbed scrub and young

(planted White Pine) in grazed outcrop area;

 

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Westward across transformed outcrop (pasture) north of Compensation Lands

- MK 84 [45o 19.403' N 75o 56.843' W [NAD 84]] - northwest corner of North Field and intersection

with electric fence field to north;

- NEA border follows north along fenceline above electric fence west of ‘Haunted House’ site;

natural habitat around degraded outcrop by Haunted House site forms narrow band adjacent to

electric fence in southern half of remaining NEA border segment to Terry Fox Road ROW;

- NEA boundary to continue along fence to Terry Fox Road ROW including degraded Haunted

House outcrop (outcrop maintains substantial native vegetation component which can be

foundation of restoration; removal would reduce extent of high priority Interior Forest

commencing immediately east of Haunted House outcrop.